Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a chronic, progressive, usually bilateral disease of the eye with an insidious onset.
It is most often characterized by optic nerve damage, defects in the retinal fiber layer and subsequent visual field loss in the absence of underlying ocular disease or congenital abnormalities.
It is generally asymptomatic until it has caused a significant loss of visual field.
Occasionally, patients with very high intraocular pressure may complain of nonspecific headache, discomfort, intermittent blurring of vision or even halos caused by corneal edema.
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients require lifetime therapy and monitoring of intraocular pressure (IOP), visual fields and optic disc
Patients who underwent laser surgery should be evaluated within 30 minutes-2 hours post-surgery and follow-up done within 6 weeks after surgery
Patients who underwent incisional glaucoma surgery must be evaluated after 12-36 hours post-surgery and at least once during the first 1-2 weeks to assess IOP, visual acuity and status of the anterior segment
Follow-up is done after 3 months in patients without postoperative complications to evaluate IOP, visual acuity and anterior segment status
Patients with postoperative complications require more frequent visits
Follow-up visits are usually at least 2 times a year but frequency may depend on extent of damage, presence of progression, stability of IOP control and patient compliance
Measure visual acuity, IOP and perform slit-lamp biomicroscopy
Gonioscopy may be performed every 1-5 years but is warranted in cases of unexplained IOP changes or if with suspicion of angle-closure component or anterior chamber abnormalities
Pneumonia is a common infection– affecting around 3,200 people inSingapore in 2016 – making it the thirdmost common cause of hospitalisation inthe country. Its common complications,especially with delayed or inappropriatetreatment, include bacteraemia andseptic shock, lung abscesses, pleuraleffusions, empyema, pleurisy, respiratoryfailure and renal failure.