Primary angle-closure is the synechial or appositional closure of the anterior chamber angle secondary to multiple mechanisms resulting in raised intraocular pressure and structural changes in the eyes.
Iridotrabecular contact is the hallmark of primary angle-closure and the most commonly identified sign which indicates that treatment is required.
It is defined by at least 180 degrees of iridotrabecular contact together with an elevated intraocular pressure or peripheral anterior synechiae or btoh
Primary angle-closure glaucoma is the presence of glaucomatous optic neuropathy.
Canadian Ophthalmological Society Glaucoma Clinical Practice Guideline Expert Committee; Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Canadian Ophthalmological Society evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the management of glaucoma in the adult eye. Can J Ophthalmol. 2009;44(Suppl Suppl 1):S7-S93. doi: 10.3129/cjo44s1. Accessed 10 Feb 2012. PMID: 19492005
Broan AM, Garcger CP, Sirbat D, et al. Comparison of two fixed beta-blocker-pilocarpine combinations. The Carteolol-Pilocarpine Study Group. Eur J Ophthalmol. 1997;7(4):351-356. Accessed 10 Feb 2012. PMID: 9457458
Demailly P, Allaire C, Bron V, Trinquand C. Effectiveness and tolerance of beta blocker/pilocarpine combination eye drops in primary open-angle glaucoma and high intraocular pressure. J Glaucoma. 1995 Aug;4(4):235-241. Accessed 10 Feb 2012. PMID: 19920680
European Glaucoma Society. Terminology and guidelines in glaucoma. 3rd. Italy: European Glaucoma Society; 2008.
South East Asia Interest Group. Asia Pacific glaucoma guidelines. 2nd ed. Sydney, Australia: SEAGIG; 2008
See JL, Chew PTK. Angle-closure glaucoma. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, et al. Ophthalmology. 3rd ed. Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby, Elsevier; 2009:1162-1171
International Council of Ophthalmology. Primary angle closure (initial evaluation and therapy). International Council of Ophthalmology. http://www.icoph.org/dynamic/attachments/resources/icopriangleclosure_2.pdf. 2010. Accessed 28 Aug 2012.
American Academy of Ophthalmology Glaucoma Panel. Preferred Practice Pattern Guidelines. Primary angle closure. San Francisco, CA: American Academy of Ophthalmology. http://one.aao.org/preferred-practice-pattern/primary-angle-closure-ppp--october-2010. 2010. Accessed 22 Aug 2012
Japan Glaucoma Society. Guidelines for glaucoma. 2nd ed. Japan Glaucoma Society. http://ryokunaisho.jp/. Sep 2006. Accessed 31 Aug 2012.
National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care. Glaucoma: Diagnosis and management of chronic open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. http://www.nice.org.uk/. Apr 2009. Accessed 03 Feb 2012.
Cheng JW, Zong Y, Zeng YY, et al. The prevalence of primary angle closure glaucoma in adult Asians: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2014 Jul 24;9(7):e103222. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103222. Accessed 22 Sep 2015. PMID: 5057993
Prum BE Jr, Rosenberg LF, Gedde SJ, et al. Primary open-angle glaucoma preferred practice pattern guidelines. Ophthalmology. 2016 Jan;123(1):P41-P111. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2015.10.053. PMID: 26581556
Azuara-Blanco A, Burr J, Ramsay C, et al. Effectiveness of early lens extraction for the treatment of primary angle-closure glaucoma (EAGLE): a randomized controlled trial. Lancet. 2016 Oct;388(10052):1389-1397. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30956-4. PMID: 27707497
Khondkaryan A, Francis BA. Angle closure glaucoma. American Academy of Ophthalmology. https://www.aao.org. Dec 2013.
The combination therapy comprising carfilzomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (KCd) is effective, with a tolerable safety profile, in an Asian cohort with high-risk multiple myeloma (MM) — thus providing a more economical alternative as a potential upfront regimen in resource-limited settings, according to leading experts during a myeloma education webinar.
Extremes of sleep duration (≤5 or ≥10 hours/day), which is a known mortality risk factor in the general population, may increase absolute mortality in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D), a prospective study has shown.
Insulin icodec, an in-development basal insulin analogue administered once weekly, was as effective as once-daily insulin glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) insufficiently controlled with metformin with or without a DPP-4* inhibitor, according to a phase II trial presented at EASD 2020.