primary%20angle-closure%20glaucoma
PRIMARY ANGLE-CLOSURE GLAUCOMA
Primary angle-closure is the synechial or appositional closure of the anterior chamber angle secondary to multiple mechanisms resulting in raised intraocular pressure and structural changes in the eyes.
Iridotrabecular contact is the hallmark of primary angle-closure  and the most commonly identified sign which indicates that treatment is required.
It is defined by at least 180 degrees of iridotrabecular contact together with an elevated intraocular pressure or peripheral anterior synechiae or btoh
Primary angle-closure glaucoma is the presence of glaucomatous optic neuropathy.
  1. Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Canadian Ophthalmological Society evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the management of glaucoma in the adult eye. Can J Ophthalmol. 2009;44(Suppl 1):S3-S54. Accessed 10 Feb 2012. PMID: 19492005
  2. Broan AM, Garcger CP, Sirbat D, et al. Comparison of two fixed beta-blocker-pilocarpine combinations. The Carteolol-Pilocarpine Study Group. Eur J Ophthalmol. 1997;7(4):351-356. Accessed 10 Feb 2012. PMID: 9457458
  3. Demailly P, Allaire C, Bron V, Trinquand C. Effectiveness and tolerance of beta blocker/pilocarpine combination eye drops in primary open-angle glaucoma and high intraocular pressure. J Glaucoma. 1995 Aug;4(4):235-241. Accessed 10 Feb 2012. PMID: 19920680
  4. European Glaucoma Society. Terminology and guidelines in glaucoma. 3rd. Italy: European Glaucoma Society; 2008.
  5. South East Asia Interest Group. Asia Pacific glaucoma guidelines. 2nd ed. Sydney, Australia: SEAGIG; 2008
  6. See JL, Chew PTK. Angle-closure glaucoma. In: Yanoff M, Duker JS, et al. Ophthalmology. 3rd ed. Maryland Heights, MO: Mosby, Elsevier; 2009:1162-1171
  7. International Council of Ophthalmology. Primary angle closure (initial evaluation and therapy). International Council of Ophthalmology. http://www.icoph.org/dynamic/attachments/resources/icopriangleclosure_2.pdf. 2010. Accessed 28 Aug 2012.
  8. American Academy of Ophthalmology Glaucoma Panel. Preferred Practice Pattern Guidelines. Primary angle closure. San Francisco, CA: American Academy of Ophthalmology. http://one.aao.org/preferred-practice-pattern/primary-angle-closure-ppp--october-2010. 2010. Accessed 22 Aug 2012
  9. Japan Glaucoma Society. Guidelines for glaucoma. 2nd ed. Japan Glaucoma Society. http://ryokunaisho.jp/english/Guidelines_for_Glaucoma.pdf. Sep 2006. Accessed 31 Aug 2012.
  10. American Optometric Association. Primary angle closure glaucoma. http://www.aoa.org/documents/CPG-5.pdf. 1994. Accessed 03 Sep 2012
  11. Cheng JW, Zong Y, Zeng YY, et al. The prevalence of primary angle closure glaucoma in adult Asians: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2014 Jul 24;9(7):e103222. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103222. Accessed 22 Sep 2015. PMID: 5057993
  12. Emanuel ME, Parrish RK 2nd, Gedde SJ. Evidence-based management of primary angle closure glaucoma (abstract). Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2014 Mar;25(2):89-92. doi: 10.1097/ICU.0000000000000028. Accessed 24 Sep 2015. PMID: 24463418
  13. Muñoz-Negrete FJ, González-Martín-Moro J, Casas-Llera P, et al. Guidelines for treatment of chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2015 Mar;90(3):119-138. doi: 10.1016/j.oftal.2014.09.014. Accessed 22 Sep 2015. PMID: 25459683
  14. Weizer JS. Angle-closure glaucoma. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/angle-closure-glaucoma. 04 Nov 2014.
  15. European Glaucoma Society (EGS). Terminology and guidelines for glaucoma. 4th ed. EGS. http://www.eugs.org/eng/EGS_guidelines4.asp. Jun 2014.
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Stephen Padilla, 6 days ago
Early administration of recombinant human B-type natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) can lower the incidence of reperfusion injury for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who are receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) treatment, according to a China study.
11 Aug 2019
Intraoperative methylprednisolone does not appear to significantly prevent the incidence of death, cardiac arrest and other injuries in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, according to a recent study.
3 days ago
Pulmonary function has potential predictive value for future increases in arterial stiffness and its progression, as reported in a recent study.
Yesterday
Systolic blood pressure appears to have a strong association with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH) but not with unruptured intracranial aneurysm (UIA), whereas current smoking and female sex are risk factors for both conditions, a study has found.