Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is a cyclical disorder presenting with distressing mood and behavioral symptoms that occur during the late luteal phase of the ovulatory cycle; it is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome.
It results in considerable impairment of the patient's personal functioning that occurs in approximately 5% of women of reproductive age.

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder References

  1. Elliot H. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a guide for the treating clinician. NC Med J. 2002;63(2):72-75. PMID: 12063908
  2. Cunningham J, Yonkers KA, O'Brien S, Eriksson E. Update on research and treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2009;17(2):120-137. doi: 10.1080/10673220902891836. PMID: 19373620
  3. Bhatia SC, Bhatia SK. Diagnosis and treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Oct;66(7):1239-1248. PMID: 12387436
  4. Grady-Weliky T. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jan;348(5):433-438. PMID: 12556546
  5. Jarvis CI, Lynch AM, Morin AK. Management strategies for premenstrual syndrome/premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Ann Pharmacother. 2008 Jul;42(7):967-978. doi: 10.1345/aph.1K673. PMID: 18559957
  6. Freeman E, Sondheimer S. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: recognition and treatment. Prim Care Companion J Clin Psychiatry. 2003 Feb;5(1):30-39. PMID: 15156244
  7. Steiner M, Steinberg S, Stewart D, et al. Fluoxetine in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoria. Canadian Fluoxetine/Premenstrual Dysphoria Collaborative Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1995;332(23):1529-1534. PMID: 7739706
  8. Kaur G, Gonsalves L, Thacker HL. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a review for the treating practitioner. Cleve Clin J Med. 2004 Apr;71(4):303-320. PMID: 15117171
  9. Pearlstein T, Steiner M. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder: burden of illness and treatment update. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2008 Jul;33(4):291-301. PMID: 18592027
  10. Steiner M, Pearlstein T, Cohen LS, et al. Expert guidelines for the treatment of severe PMS, PMDD, and comorbidities: the role of SSRIs. J Women's Health (Larchmt). 2006;15(1):57-69. PMID: 16417420
  11. Vigod SN, Ross LE, Steiner M. Understanding and treating premenstrual dysphoric disorder: an update for the women's health practitioner. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2009 Dec;36(4):907-924. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2009.10.010. PMID: 19944308
  12. Wyatt K, Dimmock PW, Jones P, et al. Efficacy of progesterone and progestogen in management of premenstrual syndrome: systematic review. BMJ. 2001 Oct;323(7316):776-80. PMID: 11588078
  13. Wyatt K, Dimmock PW, Jones P, et al. Efficacy of vitamin B-6 in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a systemic review. BMJ. 1999 May;318(7195):1375-1381. PMID: 10334745
  14. Yonkers KA, O'Brien S, Eriksson E. Premenstrual syndrome. Lancet. 2008 Apr;371(9619):1200-1210. PMID: 18395582
  15. Boxtel C, Santoso B, Edwards I. Drugs acting on the CNS. In: Boxtel C, Santoso B, Edwards I. Drugs Benefits and Risks International Textbook of Clinical Pharmacology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd; 2001:279.
  16. MedWorm
  17. MedWorm
  18. Htay TT. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder. eMedicine. Apr 2006.
  19. Biggs WS, Demuth RH. Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Am Fam Physician. 2011 Oct;84(8):918-924. PMID: 22010771
  20. European Medicines Agency, Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use. Guideline on the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. European Medicines Agency. 21 Jul 2011.
  21. Nevatte T, O'Brien PM, Bäckström T, et al; Consensus Group of the International Society for Premenstrual Disorders. ISPMD consensus on the management of premenstrual disorders. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2013 Aug;16(4):279-291. doi: 10.1007/s00737-013-0346-y. Accessed 27 May 2014. PMID: 23624686
  22. Casper RF, Yonkers KA. Treatment of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. UpToDate. 08 Jun 2016. Accessed 18 Oct 2016.
  23. Smith M, Frey BN. Treating comorbid premenstrual dysphoric disorder in women with bipolar disorder. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2016 Mar;41(2):E22-3. Accessed 25 Oct 2016. PMID: 26898728
  24. Green LJ, O’Brien PMS, Panay N, Craig M on behalf of the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Management of premenstrual syndrome. BJOG. 2017;124:e73–e105.
  25. Yonkers KA, Simoni MK. Premenstrual disorders. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Jan;218(1):68-74. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2017.05.045. PMID: 28571724
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Psychiatry - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Stephen Padilla, 29 Sep 2020
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic appears to have quickened the acceptance of prescription digital therapeutics (PDT), or software that helps treat human disease, by clinicians and patients, particularly those suffering from mental health conditions, according to experts from one of the sessions at the 2020 Virtual Forum of the Asia Pacific Medical Technology Association (APACMed 2020).