Premenstrual dysphoric disorder is a cyclical disorder presenting with distressing mood and behavioral symptoms that occur during the late luteal phase of the ovulatory cycle; it is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome.
It results in considerable impairment of the patient's personal functioning that occurs in approximately 5% of women of reproductive age.

Patient Education

  • Emphasize the need to seek help due to the following reasons:
    • PMDD tends to recur each cycle and may become severe over time
    • This dysfunction can be readily diagnosed and effectively treated
  • Advise regarding the benefits and risks of each therapeutic agent and how to safely stop drug intake 
  • Inform the patient regarding the mixed results of studies on complementary medicines 
  • Educate both the patient and the family/spouse as this disorder impacts on the entire family context

Lifestyle Modification

Diet Modification

  • Dietary changes can have a noticeable impact on PMS severity
    • Reduction of caffeine intake may diminish anxiety and irritability
    • Decreasing Na intake can lessen bloating and edema
    • Patients should also be encouraged to reduce intake of refined sugar and eat small balanced meals rich in complex carbohydrates

Increase in Physical Exercise

  • Has been shown to significantly improve mood and decrease lethargy
  • Evidence of effect is largely anecdotal but can be advised as part of healthy lifestyle
  • Aerobic exercise for 20-30 min, 3-4x/week has been recommended
  • Reduction of body weight to within 20% of ideal is an appropriate goal
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Psychiatry - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
10 Jul 2017
Adjunctive vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) improves long-term outcomes compared with treatment as usual in patients with treatment-resistant depression, reports a recent study.
20 Feb 2018
Electroconvulsive therapy appears to be beneficial to patients with depression with psychotic features and to elderly people with depression, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis.
19 Oct 2018
Colorectal cancer (CRC) patients are at a higher risk of suicide, reports a recent Taiwan study.
Roshini Claire Anthony, 17 Oct 2018

Individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) who are treated with atomoxetine or methylphenidate may have a risk for elevated heart rate and systolic blood pressure (BP), according to a meta-analysis.