Postpartum hemorrhage is defined as blood loss of ≥500 mL for vaginal delivery after completion of the 3rd stage of labor while for cesarean delivery, the cut-off is 1000 mL.
It may present as either early (primary) or late (secondary) postpartum hemorrhage.
Postpartum hemorrhage may produce hemodynamic instability during the 1st 24 hours after delivery.
Immediate administration of the antifibrinolytic tranexamic acid increased the likelihood of survival in patients with acute severe haemorrhage, with efficacy reducing with every 15-minute delay in treatment, according to a large study.
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Acute diarrhoea is the second leading cause of deathin children aged younger than 5 years, accounting forapproximately 1.9 million deaths worldwide each year;however, diarrhoea is a preventable and treatable condition.In Malaysia, acute gastroenteritis accounts for about 1.3%of all deaths in children aged younger than 5 years annually.Diarrhoea is defined as the passage of three or more looseor watery stools within 24 hours, and it may be clinicallycategorised as either acute watery diarrhoea (AWD), acutebloody diarrhoea, persistent diarrhoea or diarrhoea withsevere malnutrition.