Postpartum hemorrhage is defined as blood loss of ≥500 mL for vaginal delivery after completion of the 3rd stage of labor while for cesarean delivery, the cut-off is 1000 mL.
It may present as either early (primary) or late (secondary) postpartum hemorrhage.
Postpartum hemorrhage may produce hemodynamic instability during the 1st 24 hours after delivery.
Hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance appear to exacerbate phenotypic characteristics, reproductive endocrine disorders, and glucose and lipid metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and therefore lead to reduced fertility in these women, a study has found.
A Mediterranean-style diet may reduce the risk of gestational diabetes and weight gain in pregnant women with metabolic risk factors, but not the overall risk of maternal and offspring adverse outcomes, according to the ESTEEM* trial.