Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the accumulation of underdeveloped follicles in the ovaries due to anovulation. It is is characterized by menstrual abnormalities and clinical or biochemical features of hyperandrogenism.
It results mainly from abnormal steroidogenesis that may be caused by insulin resistance leading to hyperinsulinemia.
There is increased sensitivity to androgens and the majority of women have elevated androgen levels.
Hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance appear to exacerbate phenotypic characteristics, reproductive endocrine disorders, and glucose and lipid metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients and therefore lead to reduced fertility in these women, a study has found.
Use of oral contraceptive agents in combination with metformin or lifestyle changes appears to effectively reduce the adverse impact of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on glucose and lipid metabolism in overweight women, according to the results of a network meta-analysis.
The sodium‐glucose‐cotransporter‐2 inhibitor empagliflozin yields beneficial effects on weight anthropometric parameters and body composition—including weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and total body fat—that are greater than those achieved with metformin in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a study has shown.
Infants born to mothers with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are less likely to be large for gestational age, according to data from the SCOPE* cohort study. Moreover, PCOS does not carry an increased risk of pregnancy complications in women following a healthy lifestyle.
Diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is challenging, and there should be no rush to label an adolescent as having the condition before a thorough evaluation of symptoms, according to a leading endocrinologist who was speaking at the RCOG World Congress 2018 in Singapore.
Short-term treatment with exenatide yields significant weight loss and central adiposity reduction, which appear to explain further improvements in insulin resistance, inflammatory marker and menstrual cycle in overweight or obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a study has shown.
Among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), enlarged ovarian volume and follicle excess are associated with insulin resistance, according to a study. Furthermore, the number of ovarian follicles could be a useful predictor of insulin resistance.
Supplementation with resistant starch for 12 weeks decreases the inflammatory marker tumour necrosis factor [TNF]-α and heart rate but does not significantly improve glycaemic control and other cardiovascular disease risk factors in prediabetic adults, suggests a study.
Use of the feminizing hormone therapy medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) results in minimal side effects, unchanged oestradiol levels and a decline in testosterone in a cohort of transwomen, a study has found.