polycystic%20ovarian%20syndrome
POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the accumulation of underdeveloped follicles in the ovaries due to anovulation. It is is characterized by menstrual abnormalities and clinical or biochemical features of hyperandrogenism.
It results mainly from abnormal steroidogenesis that may be caused by insulin resistance leading to hyperinsulinemia.
There is increased sensitivity to androgens and the majority of women have elevated androgen levels.

Diagnosis

  • Diagnosis is based on 2003 Rotterdam criteria:
    • 2 out of 3 of the following: Oligo-ovulation or anovulation, clinical or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism, polycystic ovaries
    • Exclusion of other causes (congenital adrenal hyperplasia, androgen-secreting tumors, Cushing’s syndrome, thyroid disease, prolactinoma)
  • Androgen Excess PCOS Society guidelines cite hyperandrogenism as an absolute requirement for diagnosis

History

  • Focus on the onset and duration of various signs of androgen excess, menstrual history and concomitant medications eg exogenous androgens
    • Menstrual history must screen for the status of ovulation in women with PCOS seeking fertility
  • Family history of DM or CV disease (especially 1st-degree relatives with premature onset of CV disease)

Physical Examination

  • Patients usually have features of hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation; cutaneous symptoms of PCOS should be documented
  • Body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio are calculated
  • Blood pressure

Laboratory Tests

  • Urine pregnancy test should be obtained in every patient in the reproductive age group reporting for menstrual abnormalities
  • If the patient presents with clinical features of hyperandrogenism with chronic anovulation, then other identifiable causes need to be excluded
  • Patient should undergo lab tests to exclude:
    • Androgen-secreting tumors of the ovary or adrenal gland, late-onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and hyperprolactinemia
    • The above can be ruled out if prolactin, TSH, free testosterone, DHEA-S and corticotropin-stimulated 17-α-hydroxyprogesterone levels are normal
  • Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) determines the degree of glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia 
  • Lipid profile
  • Midluteal serum progesterone may be done to document potential anovulation in PCOS patients with regular menses

Imaging

Ultrasonography

  • Determination of polycystic ovaries in one or both ovaries:
    • Either ≥12 follicles measuring 2–9 mm in diameter in the entire ovary or increased ovarian volume (>10 cm3)
    • If there is a follicle >10 mm in diameter, the scan should be repeated at a time of ovarian quiescence in order to calculate volume and area
    • Presence of one polycystic ovary is sufficient to provide the diagnosis 
  • Identification of endometrial abnormalities
    • Routine screening with ultrasound for endometrial thickness to rule out endometrial cancer in PCOS patients is not recommended
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Endocrinology - Malaysia digital copy today!
DOWNLOAD
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
01 Jan 2016
The thyroid gland was hypovascular, coarse,  hyperechoic, and had substantially decreased in mean total volume among Graves' hyperthyroidism patients following radioiodine therapy, based on a study
8 hours ago
Global hypomethylation of Alu appears to increasingly influence distant metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), poorly (P)DTC and anaplastic (A)TC, according to a recent study. This suggests that the epigenetic entity may be involved in thyroid cancer progression and dedifferentiation.
01 Nov 2015
Increased serum prolidase levels in Grave's disease patients without ophthalmopathy signs are positively associated with oxidative stress parameters as shown in a study.
01 Dec 2013
This is a global review of the diagnosis and management of Graves disease.