Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is defined as pneumonia occurring ≥48 hours after admission and excluding any infection that is incubating at the time of admission.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is described as pneumonia occurring >48-72 hours after endotracheal intubation and within 48 hours after removal of endotracheal tube.
Early-onset HAP or VAP is the pneumonia occurring within the first 4 days of hospitalization that may be cause by antibiotic-sensitive bacteria that usually carries a better diagnosis.
Late-onset HAP or VAP is the pneumonia occurring after ≥5 days. It is likely caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens associated with increased mortality and morbidity.

Supportive Therapy

Oxygen (O2)Therapy
Continuous O2 therapy is indicated for:
  • Patient w/ PaO2 <8 kPa (60 mmHg)
  • Hypotension w/ systolic blood pressure (SBP) <100 mmHg
  • Metabolic acidosis w/ bicarbonate <18 mmol/L
  • Respiratory distress w/ a respiratory rate >24 breaths/minute
Goal of O2 therapy:
  • Maintain PaO2 ≥8 kPa (60 mmHg) or SaO2 ≥92%
  • Adequate hydration, nutritional support
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