Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is defined as pneumonia occurring ≥48 hours after admission and excluding any infection that is incubating at the time of admission.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is described as pneumonia occurring >48-72 hours after endotracheal intubation and within 48 hours after removal of endotracheal tube.
Early-onset HAP or VAP is the pneumonia occurring within the first 4 days of hospitalization that may be cause by antibiotic-sensitive bacteria that usually carries a better diagnosis.
Late-onset HAP or VAP is the pneumonia occurring after ≥5 days. It is likely caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens associated with increased mortality and morbidity.
Individuals hospitalized with pneumonia have an elevated risk of developing major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), with a greater risk among those with bacterial compared with viral pneumonia, according to a recent study presented at AHA 2018.
Long-term proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy was associated with an increased pneumonia risk among older adults, putting to rest the controversies about the validity of previously reported short-term harms of PPIs, according to a large, longitudinal analysis of electronic medical records.
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Adding the anti-GM-CSF* receptor-α monoclonal antibody mavrilimumab to standard care (SC) improved clinical outcomes in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia and systemic hyperinflammation who were not under mechanical ventilation (MV), an Italian study has shown.
Intravenous (IV) antibiotics are no better than oral antibiotics when it comes to eradicating Pseudomonas (P.) aeruginosa in children and adults with cystic fibrosis, yet are more costly than the latter, reveals the TORPEDO-CF study.