Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is defined as pneumonia occurring ≥48 hours after admission and excluding any infection that is incubating at the time of admission.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is described as pneumonia occurring >48-72 hours after endotracheal intubation and within 48 hours after removal of endotracheal tube.
Early-onset HAP or VAP is the pneumonia occurring within the first 4 days of hospitalization that may be cause by antibiotic-sensitive bacteria that usually carries a better diagnosis.
Late-onset HAP or VAP is the pneumonia occurring after ≥5 days. It is likely caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens associated with increased mortality and morbidity.
Individuals hospitalized with pneumonia have an elevated risk of developing major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), with a greater risk among those with bacterial compared with viral pneumonia, according to a recent study presented at AHA 2018.
Long-term proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy was associated with an increased pneumonia risk among older adults, putting to rest the controversies about the validity of previously reported short-term harms of PPIs, according to a large, longitudinal analysis of electronic medical records.
A large number of nonventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia (NV-HAP) cases begin outside the intensive care unit (ICU) setting, with a lack of HAP-preventing therapeutic measures partially to blame, according to findings from the US-based HAPPI-2* study.
The combination of ceftazidime and avibactam proved noninferior to meropenem in adults with nosocomial pneumonia, positioning it as a potential treatment option for this condition, results from the phase III REPROVE* trial show. Nonetheless, the combination was associated with a higher number of safety events compared with meropenem.
Having a high initial effusion volume of >1,000 cc was associated with an increased need for surgical intervention after treatment with chest tube thoracostomy (CTT) in patients with loculated pleural effusion, according to a study presented at the APSR 2017 Congress.
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Children who are fully vaccinated against the flu, ie, receive the recommended number of influenza vaccine doses, have a lower risk of acquiring influenza compared with those who are partially vaccinated, a US study found.
Routinely used for treating cardiovascular diseases, statins have been shown to benefit other conditions, and new evidence suggests that using the drug at high intensity reduces the risk of hip or knee replacement, an effect that may be specific to rheumatoid arthritis.
Having migraine during midlife appears to be associated with a higher risk of developing dementia in later life, according to a large population-based longitudinal Danish study presented at the AHS* 2020 Virtual Meeting, indicating that migraine may be a risk factor for dementia.
Upadacitinib may be a suitable treatment for patients with active psoriatic arthritis (PsA) who have insufficient response to non-biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (non-bDMARDs), according to results of the phase III SELECT-PsA-1* trial presented at EULAR 2020.