Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is defined as pneumonia occurring ≥48 hours after admission and excluding any infection that is incubating at the time of admission.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is described as pneumonia occurring >48-72 hours after endotracheal intubation and within 48 hours after removal of endotracheal tube.
Early-onset HAP or VAP is the pneumonia occurring within the first 4 days of hospitalization that may be cause by antibiotic-sensitive bacteria that usually carries a better diagnosis.
Late-onset HAP or VAP is the pneumonia occurring after ≥5 days. It is likely caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens associated with increased mortality and morbidity.
The airway microbiota is recently demonstrated to be associated with lung cancer via up-regulation of the ERK, PI3K and IL-17A signalling pathways, according to data presented at the recent European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress 2018.
Smoking marijuana may lead to cough, sputum production and wheezing, suggests a recent study with low-strength evidence. In addition, there is insufficient evidence supporting the association between marijuana use and obstructive lung disease.