pneumonia%20-%20hospital-acquired
PNEUMONIA - HOSPITAL-ACQUIRED
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is defined as pneumonia occurring ≥48 hours after admission and excluding any infection that is incubating at the time of admission.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is described as pneumonia occurring >48-72 hours after endotracheal intubation and within 48 hours after removal of endotracheal tube.
Early-onset HAP or VAP is the pneumonia occurring within the first 4 days of hospitalization that may be cause by antibiotic-sensitive bacteria that usually carries a better diagnosis.
Late-onset HAP or VAP is the pneumonia occurring after ≥5 days. It is likely caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens associated with increased mortality and morbidity.

Differential Diagnosis

  • Chronic heart failure (CHF), atelectasis, pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE), pulmonary drug reactions, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pulmonary hemorrhage, chemical pneumonitis from aspiration
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Respirology - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
01 Apr 2016
Posaconazole oral suspension may be effective in managing fungal infections among lung transplant recipients, as presented in a single-centre, retrospective study.
Saras Ramiya, 19 Nov 2018
Sunway Medical Centre is collaborating with Royal Papworth Hospital to facilitate knowledge exchange among cardiology and respiratory experts.
Tristan Manalac, 11 Sep 2018
The immediate reduction of cigarette nicotine content results in greater improvements in levels of smoke exposure biomarkers than gradual reduction, though withdrawal symptoms are stronger, according to a recent study.
Pearl Toh, 31 Jul 2017
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), a noninvasive ventilation, may help improve respiratory rate and reduce mortality in children with respiratory distress, particularly in those younger than 1 year, a recent study showed. CPAP intervention was initiated by nurses with minimal physician supervision in the study, supporting the use of noninvasive ventilation in low-resource settings where laboratory diagnostic tests are not readily available.