Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is defined as pneumonia occurring ≥48 hours after admission and excluding any infection that is incubating at the time of admission.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is described as pneumonia occurring >48-72 hours after endotracheal intubation and within 48 hours after removal of endotracheal tube.
Early-onset HAP or VAP is the pneumonia occurring within the first 4 days of hospitalization that may be cause by antibiotic-sensitive bacteria that usually carries a better diagnosis.
Late-onset HAP or VAP is the pneumonia occurring after ≥5 days. It is likely caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens associated with increased mortality and morbidity.
At a dinner symposium at Le Méridien Kuala Lumpur, Professor Dato’ Prepageran Narayanan presented the data concerning allergic rhinitis (AR) in Malaysia, and he discussed the role of intranasal corticosteroids (INCSs) in managing AR.
Almost half of secondary school children who had been diagnosed with asthma had suboptimal asthma control, yet over half of those surveyed did not use their inhalers as prescribed, a recent study found.