pneumonia%20-%20community-acquired
PNEUMONIA - COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED
Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is an acute infection of the pulmonary parenchyma accompanied by symptoms of acute illness and abnormal chest findings.
It is a lower respiratory tract infection acquired in the community within 24 hours to <2 weeks or occurring ≤48 hours of hospital admission in patients who do not meet the criteria for healthcare-associated pneumonia.
It occurs at the highest rates in the very young and the very old.
Potentially life-threatening especially in older adults and those with comorbid disease.
  1. Anand N, Kollef MH. The alphabet soup of pneumonia: CAP, HAP, HCAP, NHAP, and VAP. Feb 06, 2009. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Feb;30(1):003-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=19199181. PMID: 19199181
  2. British Thoracic Society Standards of Care Committee. BTS Guidelines for the Management of Community Acquired Pneumonia in Adults. Thorax. 2001 Dec;56(4)(Suppl Suppl):iv1-iv64. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11713364. PMID: 11713364
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated recommendations for prevention of invasive pneumococcal disease among adults using the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV 23). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2010 Sep;59(34):1102-1106. Accessed 06 Apr 2011. PMID: 20814406
  4. Carbonara S, Monno L, Longo B, et al. Community-acquired pneumonia. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2009 May;15(3):261-273. doi: 10.1097/MCP.0b013e3283287c3f. PMID: 19387263
  5. File TM. The science of selecting antimicrobials for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). J Manag Care Pharm. 2009 Mar;15(2)(Suppl Suppl):S5-S11. PMID: 19236135
  6. Garcia-Vidal C, Carratalà J. Early and late treatment failure in community-acquired pneumonia. Mar 18, 2009. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Apr;30(2):154-160. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=19296415. PMID: 19296415
  7. Lee RW, Lindstrom ST. Early switch to oral antibiotics and early discharge guidelines in the management of community-acquired pneumonia. Respirology. 2007 Jan;12(1):111-116. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1843.2006.00931.x. PMID: 17207035
  8. Lode HM. Managing community-acquired pneumonia: a European perspective. Respir Med. 2007 Sep;101(9):1864-1873. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2007.04.008. PMID: 17548187
  9. Liam CK, Pang YK, Poosparajah S, et al. Community-acquired pneumonia: an Asia Pacific perspective. Respirology. 2007 Mar;12(2):162-164. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1843.2006.01013.x. PMID: 17298446
  10. Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A,et al; Infectious Diseases Society of America; American Thoracic Society. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society Consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Mar;44(Suppl 2):S27-S72. PMID: 17278083
  11. Lutfiyya MN, Henley E, Chang LF, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Am Fam Physician. 2006 Feb;73(3):442-450. http://www.aafp.org/. PMID: 16477891
  12. Ramsdell J, Narsavage GL, Fink JB; American College of Chest Physicians' Home Care Network Working Group. Management of community-acquired pneumonia in the home: an american college of chest physicians clinical position statement. Chest. 2005 May;127(5):1752-1763. PMID: 15888856
  13. Woodhead M. The European vision of community-acquired pneumonia. Mar 18, 2009. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Apr;30(2):136-145. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=19296413. PMID: 19296413
  14. Shorr AF, Owens RC Jr. Guidelines and quality for community-acquired pneumonia: measures from the Joint Commission and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2009 Jun;66(12)(Suppl 4):S2-S7. doi: 10.2146/090087a. PMID: 19502224
  15. World Health Organization. Guidelines for the management of common illnesses with limited resources. Pocket book of hospital care for children. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2005.
  16. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Pediatrics/33/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Pediatrics.xml
  17. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Respiratory-Medicine/40/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Respiratory-Medicine.xml
  18. Ministry of Health Singapore. Clinical Practice Guidelines: use of antibiotics in adults. MOH (Singapore). http://www.moh.gov.sg/. Feb 2006.
  19. BTS Standards of Care Committee. BTS Guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in adults. Update 2004. British Thoracic Society. http://www.brit-thoracic.org.uk/. 20 Jan 2004.
  20. Joint Statement of the Philippine Society of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Philippine College of Chest Physicians, Philippine Academy of Family Physicians, and Philippine College of Radiology. Philippine clinical practice guidelines on the diagnosis, empiric management, and prevention of community-acquired peumonia (CAP) in immunocompetent adults. Updated 2010. http://www/rsmid.org.ph/. 2010.
  21. Alberta Medical Association. The diagnosis and management of community acquired pneumonia: pediatric. http://www.topalbertadoctors.org/. 2006.
  22. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Pneumonia: diagnosis and management of community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia in adults. NICE clinical guideline 191. NICE website. http://www.nice.org.uk/. Dec 2014. Accessed 21 Apr 2015.
  23. Community-acquired Pneumonia Task Force 2016; Joint Statement of the Philippine Society of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Philippine College of Chest Physicians, Philippine Academy of Family Physicians, and Philippine College of Radiology. Philippine clinical practice guidelines on the diagnosis, empiric management and prevention of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults: 2016 update; treatment. Philippine Academy of Family Physicians. http://thepafp.org/. 2016.
  24. Kim DK, Riley LE, Harriman KH, Hunter P, Bridges CB. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older - United States, 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017 Feb;66(5):136-138. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6605e2. PMID: 28182599
  25. Marrie TJ, File TM. Epidemiology, pathogenesis, and microbiology of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. UptoDate. https://www.uptodate.com/. Feb 2017.
  26. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Recommended immunization schedule for adults aged 19 years or older, United States, 2018. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules. Feb 2018. Accessed 03 Apr 2018.
  27. Kalil AC, Metersky ML, Klompas M, et al. Management of Adults With Hospital-acquired and Ventilator-associated Pneumonia: 2016 Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Sep;63(5):e61-e111. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciw353. PMID: 27418577
  28. Fine MJ, Auble TE, Yealy DM, et al. A prediction rule to identify low-risk patients with community-acquired pneumonia. N Engl J Med. 1997 Jan;336(4):243-250. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199701233360402. PMID: 8995086
  29. Ramirez JA. Overview of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. UptoDate. https://www.uptodate.com/. May 2019.
  30. Yearly DM, Fine MJ. Community-acquired pneumonia in adults: Assessing severity and determining the appropriate site of care. UptoDate. https://www.uptodate.com/. May 2019.
  31. File TM. Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults in the outpatient setting. UptoDate. https://www.uptodate.com/. Jan 2019.
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Infectious Diseases - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Roshini Claire Anthony, 4 days ago

Beta-blockers could reduce mortality risk in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and moderate or moderately-severe renal dysfunction without causing harm, according to the BB-META-HF* trial presented at ESC 2019.

Stephen Padilla, 5 days ago
Implementation of the collaborative care in a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) clinic has led to improvements in nonbiologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (nb-DMARDs) optimization, adherence to safety recommendations on nb-DMARD monitoring and detection of adverse drug events in RA patients, according to a Singapore study.
Pearl Toh, 6 days ago
Use of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) was associated with a significantly increased risk of invasive breast cancer, which became progressively greater with longer duration of use, a meta-analysis of worldwide prospective epidemiological studies has shown.
4 days ago
Blood pressure (BP) in children is influenced by early-life exposure to several chemicals, built environment and meteorological factors, suggests a study.