Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is an acute infection of the pulmonary parenchyma accompanied by symptoms of acute illness and abnormal chest findings.
It is a lower respiratory tract infection acquired in the community within 24 hours to <2 weeks or occurring ≤48 hours of hospital admission in patients who do not meet the criteria for healthcare-associated pneumonia.
It occurs at the highest rates in the very young and the very old.
Potentially life-threatening especially in older adults and those with comorbid disease.
Adding empirical anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) therapy to standard antibiotic regimens in patients hospitalized for pneumonia is associated with an elevated risk of 30-day all-cause mortality, a recent retrospective study found.
Pneumonia is a common infection– affecting around 3,200 people inSingapore in 2016 – making it the thirdmost common cause of hospitalisation inthe country. Its common complications,especially with delayed or inappropriatetreatment, include bacteraemia andseptic shock, lung abscesses, pleuraleffusions, empyema, pleurisy, respiratoryfailure and renal failure.
An antimicrobial stewardship approach of de-escalating from combination therapy with beta-lactam plus macrolide to beta-lactam monotherapy in the management of patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and a negative BioFire FilmArray Respiratory Panel 2 polymerase chain reaction (BioFire PCR) result is reasonable and does not lead to increased in-hospital mortality, according to a recent study.
The PRoFeSs score―which includes the Charlson score, as well as levels of day 3 lactate, day 1 and day 3 procalcitonin, day 3 D-dimer, and day 1 brain-type natriuretic peptide―can identify severe community-acquired pneumonia patients at high risk of poor outcomes 5 days after ICU admission, a recent study has found.
Assoc Prof Philip Eng, senior consultant respiratory physician at Mt Elizabeth Hospital in Singapore, shares his insights with Pearl Toh on diagnosing and managing pneumonia in the primary care setting.
The novel pleuromutilin antibiotic lefamulin - now in an oral therapy form - has demonstrated a favourable safety and tolerability profile for community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) in the LEAP* 2 study, the same result seen for intravenous (IV) lefemulin in the original LEAP 1 study.
The tetracycline omadacycline is not inferior to moxifloxacin when used as empirical monotherapy for hospitalized adults with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia, according to the results of a phase III study.
Gefapixant, a first-in-class non-narcotic, oral P2X3 receptor antagonist, significantly reduces cough frequency in patients with refractory or unexplained chronic cough, according to two COUGH* studies presented at ERS 2020.
Treatment with the DPP 1* inhibitor brensocatib prolonged time to exacerbation and reduced exacerbation rates in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, according to the phase II WILLOW** study presented at ERS 2020.
Almost three-quarters of adverse events (AEs) related to medication errors in over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold medications (CCMs) for paediatrics required evaluation by healthcare facility and majority of the cases were due to dosing errors, a surveillance study has found, highlighting the need for interventions to mitigate medication errors.