Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is an acute infection of the pulmonary parenchyma accompanied by symptoms of acute illness and abnormal chest findings.
It is a lower respiratory tract infection acquired in the community within 24 hours to <2 weeks or occurring ≤48 hours of hospital admission in patients who do not meet the criteria for healthcare-associated pneumonia.
It occurs at the highest rates in the very young and the very old.
Potentially life-threatening especially in older adults and those with comorbid disease.
Adding empirical anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) therapy to standard antibiotic regimens in patients hospitalized for pneumonia is associated with an elevated risk of 30-day all-cause mortality, a recent retrospective study found.
Pneumonia is a common infection– affecting around 3,200 people inSingapore in 2016 – making it the thirdmost common cause of hospitalisation inthe country. Its common complications,especially with delayed or inappropriatetreatment, include bacteraemia andseptic shock, lung abscesses, pleuraleffusions, empyema, pleurisy, respiratoryfailure and renal failure.
An antimicrobial stewardship approach of de-escalating from combination therapy with beta-lactam plus macrolide to beta-lactam monotherapy in the management of patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and a negative BioFire FilmArray Respiratory Panel 2 polymerase chain reaction (BioFire PCR) result is reasonable and does not lead to increased in-hospital mortality, according to a recent study.
The PRoFeSs score―which includes the Charlson score, as well as levels of day 3 lactate, day 1 and day 3 procalcitonin, day 3 D-dimer, and day 1 brain-type natriuretic peptide―can identify severe community-acquired pneumonia patients at high risk of poor outcomes 5 days after ICU admission, a recent study has found.
Assoc Prof Philip Eng, senior consultant respiratory physician at Mt Elizabeth Hospital in Singapore, shares his insights with Pearl Toh on diagnosing and managing pneumonia in the primary care setting.
Individuals positive for COVID-19 who are asymptomatic carry similar viral loads as symptomatic patients, according to a study on a population in nursing homes presented during IDWeek 2020 — underscoring the importance of personal protective equipment (PPE) to limit viral transmission.