pneumonia%20-%20community-acquired%20(pediatric)
PNEUMONIA - COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED (PEDIATRIC)
Community-acquired pneumonia is the presence of signs and symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection acquired outside of the hospital.
The most common bacterial cause of childhood pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae. It usually causes about 1/3 of radiographically-confirmed pneumonia in children <2 years of age.
Viruses commonly affect children <1 year of age than those aged >2 years, respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) being the most frequently detected virus.
Mixed infection may occur in 8-40% of community-acquired pneumonia cases.

Supportive Therapy

  • Parents of children who do not require hospitalization should be advised about:
    • Use of antipyretics to manage fever
    • Preventing dehydration
    • Determining signs of deterioration or signs of other serious illness after 48 hours of antibiotic therapy 
  • Patients admitted in the hospital, whose oxygen saturation is <92% while breathing room air, should be given oxygen via nasal cannula, head box, or face mask to sustain oxygen saturation >95%
  • Fluid therapy (eg IV fluid replacement or nasogastric feeds) is recommended in patients who are unable to maintain their fluid intake secondary to breathlessness, fatigue, or vomiting
    • Plasma sodium, potassium, urea and/or creatinine should be measured at baseline and at least daily in patients on intravenous fluids
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