pneumonia%20-%20community-acquired%20(pediatric)
PNEUMONIA - COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED (PEDIATRIC)
Community-acquired pneumonia is the presence of signs and symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection acquired outside of the hospital.
The most common bacterial cause of childhood pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae. It usually causes about 1/3 of radiographically-confirmed pneumonia in children <2 years of age.
Viruses commonly affects children <1 year of age than those aged > 2 years, respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) being the most frequently detected virus.
Mixed infection may occur in 8-40% of community-acquired pneumonia cases.

Supportive Therapy

  • Parents of children who does not require hospitalization should be advised about:
    • Use of antipyretics to manage fever
    • Preventing dehydration
    • Determining signs of deterioration or signs of other serious illness
  • Patients admitted in the hospital, whose oxygen saturation is <92% while breathing air should be given oxygen via nasal cannula, head box, or face mask to sustain oxygen saturation >92%
  • Fluid therapy is recommended in patients who are unable to maintain their fluid intake secondary to breathlessness, fatigue, or vomiting
    • Plasma sodium, potassium, urea &/or creatinine should be measured at baseline & at least daily in patients on intravenous fluids
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21 Mar 2018
During the Kuala Lumpur International Neonatology Conference held in conjunction with the World Prematurity Day 2017, Dato Dr Musa Mohd Nordin spoke on the importance of immunizing children with the diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine. He highlighted the role of Hexaxim® as a fully liquid, ready-to-use, 6-in-1 (including hepatitis B) vaccine for the primary and booster vaccinations of infants and toddlers. Meanwhile, Dr Yong Junina Fadzil discussed the benefits of quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs) in providing children with broader protection against influenza B viruses.