Community-acquired pneumonia is the presence of signs and symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection acquired outside of the hospital.
The most common bacterial cause of childhood pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae. It usually causes about 1/3 of radiographically-confirmed pneumonia in children <2 years of age.
Viruses commonly affect children <1 year of age than those aged >2 years, respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) being the most frequently detected virus.
Mixed infection may occur in 8-40% of community-acquired pneumonia cases.
A simple instrument that uses thermistor-based breathing sensors can accurately measure respiratory rate (RR) in children and in adults, holding great potential for diagnosing paediatric pneumonia in low-resource settings, according to a study.
Chest drain with fibrinolytics is as good as video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) in the management of childhood empyema, with fibrinolytics being a cheaper option than VATS, according to a presentation at the APSR 2017 Congress.
The addition of a macrolide* to empirical β-lactam** therapy did not reduce length of hospitalization in children with pneumonia, a recent study found, raising questions on the routine use of macrolides in this setting.
Pleural fluid lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and glucose are useful parameters for evaluating severity of paediatric community acquired complicated pneumonia (PCACP), according to a study. Measurements of both parameters strongly correlate with prolonged hospitalization as an indirect indicator of disease severity.
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Maternal influenza and Tdap (tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, acellular pertussis) vaccinations during pregnancy do not increase the risk for hospitalization or death in infants, a study has shown.