Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global problem. Chronic
HBV infection is probably the most common maternal infection encountered
in Hong Kong, China, and Southeast Asia. In Hong Kong, which is one of
the endemic areas, immunisation against HBV was first provided in 1983
to infants born to mothers who were screened positive for hepatitis B
surface antigen (HBsAg). Immunisation became widespread since November
1988, but HBsAg-positive mothers are still encountered frequently.1
Many patients, at some time in their life, may be affected by hives or urticaria, and seek help and treatment at the pharmacy. Check out this module to understand the different subtypes of urticaria and how to alleviate the symptoms with the appropriate treatment.
The use of hormones has bought great convenience to a woman’s life, be it for therapeutic use or as a lifestyle drug, ie, contraceptives. However, the duration of hormone use is frequently long, in terms of years. Concerns have been raised about the possibility of a relationship between cancer development and long-term hormonal influence. This article reviews evidence regarding the relationship between hormonal contraceptive use and the development of cancer, with the discussion focusing mainly on carcinoma of the breast and female genital tract.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the leading causes of childhood disability. It has been defined as ‘a disorder of movement and posture, causing activity limitation that is attributed to non-progressive disturbances that occurred in the developing fetal or infant brain’.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a controversial subject in obstetrics. It is defined by the National Diabetes Data Group in 1985 as carbohydrate intolerance of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.1 The first case report of GDM appeared in 1824, which described a mother with thirst, polyuria and glycosuria and the death of a macrosomic infant from shoulder impaction. Historically, there has been a lot of controversy over most aspects of GDM, including screening, diagnosis, risks, treatment, and the relationship between GDM and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, several major studies have substantially resolved these areas of controversy, eg, the Hyperglycaemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (HAPO) study,2 the Australian Carbohydrate Intolerance Study in Pregnant Women (ACHOIS),3 and the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network treatment of mild gestational diabetes (MFMUN-GDM)4 clinical trials, which will be discussed further in this article.
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the commonest cause of severe early-onset neonatal infection, which is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality (5–10%).1-3 About half of GBS meningitis will be complicated by neurodevelopment impairment. Because the early-onset disease develops shortly and rapidly after birth, there has been little improvement in the disease treatment, and the focus thus lies in disease prevention.
Short-term treatment with methotrexate at >0.5 defined daily dose (8.75 mg/week) may help reduce the risk of ischaemic stroke in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, while hydroxychloroquine and sulfasalazine have neutral effects, a retrospective study has found.
Varenicline, while effective for smoking cessation, appears to significantly elevate the risk of cardiovascular hospitalization and emergency department visits, particularly for new users, a recent study shows.
Younger children appear to be more likely to experience behavioural side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), with the likelihood increasing if children with epilepsy have baseline hyperactivity/impulsivity, a retrospective study has found.