Peripheral arterial disease includes a range of vascular syndromes caused by atherosclerosis and thromboembolic pathophysiological processes that alter the normal structure and function of the aorta, its visceral arterial branches and the arteries of the lower extremity.
Individuals at risk for lower extremity peripheral arterial disease should undergo review of vascular symptoms and comprehensive vascular examination to assess walking impairment, claudication, ischemic rest pain and/or the presence of nonhealing wounds.
Patients with peripheral arterial disease may be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Symptoms may range from claudication presenting as exertional leg pain to chronic limb-threatening ischemia presenting as rest pain, ulceration or gangrene.
Statins, especially high-intensity formulations, show therapeutic potential in peripheral artery disease, according to a study. Specifically, using the drug upon diagnosis results in a significant reduction in the risk of limb loss and mortality as compared with nonuse or treatment with antiplatelet medications only.
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibition with evolocumab yields large reductions in the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD), according to data from the FOURIER* trial. Furthermore, it confers additional benefits for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, leading to a significant decline in the risk of major adverse limb events.
An elevation in white blood cell counts appears to independently predict the risk of new-onset peripheral arterial disease (PAD), according to a Chinese cohort study, which suggests that systemic inflammation plays an important role in the development of PAD.
Blood pressure (BP) control can be best achieved with a multilevel, multicomponent approach involving team-based care with physician- and non-physician-led interventions, as well as patient-level strategies, according to findings of a meta-analysis.
Not only are probiotics healthy for the gut, they may also be good for the waistline. A recent study shows that supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 8145 (Ba8145) improves anthropometric adiposity measures such as waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and visceral fat area in abdominally obese individuals, particularly in women.