penile%20cancer
PENILE CANCER

Penile cancer is a rare type of malignant growth that occurs on the skin or tissues of the penis.

It often presents as a palpable visible penile lesion w/ signs that may include pain, bleeding, discharge or a foul odor.

The lesion may be fungating, nodular or ulcerative and may be concealed by phimosis.


Introduction

  • An uncommon malignancy with a rate of <1 per 100,000 men in the United States & Europe but is more common in Asia, Africa & South America
    • Incidence varies according to ethnicity, geographical location & racial group 
  • Typically occurs in older men with rates steadily increasing with age, between 50 & 70 years, though it may occur in younger men
  • >95% of penile cancer cases are of squamous cell origin & subtypes include verrucous carcinoma, warty carcinoma (verruciform), & basaloid carcinoma
    • Growth pattern may be through superficial spreading, nodular or vertical-phase, & verrucous
    • Warty carcinoma & basaloid carcinoma are less common but appear to be more associated with human papilloma virus (HPV), specifically HPV 16
    • High-risk squamous cell carcinoma variants with early metastases & high mortality rate include adenosquamous, basaloid, sarcomatoid, & poorly differentiated types

Definition

  • Carcinoma in situ of the penis occurring on the glans is referred to as erythroplasia of Queyrat & that occurring on the penile shaft is Bowen’s disease or Bowenoid papulosis
    • Erythroplasia of Queyrat has the highest potential of developing squamous cell carcinoma

Signs and Symptoms

  • Often presents as a palpable visible penile lesion with signs that may include pain, bleeding, discharge or a foul odor
    • The lesion may be fungating, nodular or ulcerative & may be concealed by phimosis

Risk Factors

  • A correlation is suggested by some studies between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection & penile cancer
    • Types 16 & 18 are the most common HPV subtypes in penile cancer & cancer risk is increased with condyloma acuminata
    • Mediation by HPV increases the incidence of penile cancer in HIV-infected individuals
  • Circumcision is associated with a lower risk of penile cancer & observational studies demonstrated that circumcised men have a lower prevalence of penile HPV
  • Other risk factors for penile cancer include the following:
    • Poor personal hygiene
    • First intercourse at early age
    • Multiple sexual partners
    • Tobacco smoking
    • Psoralen & ultraviolet A (PUVA) photochemotherapy
    • Phimosis
    • Penile trauma or tear
    • Urethral stricture
    • Lichen sclerosus
    • Chronic inflammation, balanitis
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
11 Dec 2017
Combining the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet with low sodium intake reduces systolic blood pressure (SBP) in individuals with pre- and stage 1 hypertension, with progressively higher reductions at greater levels of baseline SBP, a recent study has shown.
Tristan Manalac, 5 days ago
Major depressive disorder (MDD) appears to be more prevalent in females than in males, particularly in those who are divorced or widowed, a recent study from Singapore has found.
6 days ago
Tadalafil may not be effective for reducing the decline in ambulatory ability in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), as shown in a recent study.
01 Dec 2017
At a symposium during the 25th Congress of the Obstetrical and Gynaecological Society of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur, Professor Susan Davis discussed the unique implications of women living decades beyond menopause, and how healthcare professionals can best manage menopausal symptoms in the short and long term.