pelvic%20inflammatory%20disease
PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is the ascent of bacteria from the vagina or cervix resulting in infection of the reproductive organs eg uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries. It may also be a complication of sexually transmitted infections.
The most common symptoms of PID are lower abdominal pain (crampy or dull) that usually starts a few days after the onset of the last menstrual period, dyspareunia, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, postcoital or irregular vaginal bleeding, dysuria, fever, nausea and vomiting, although some have minimal symptoms or silent pelvic inflammatory disease.
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  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update to CDC's sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2006: fluoroquinolones no longer recommended for treatment of gonococcal infections. MMWR. 2007 Apr;56(14):332-336. http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed 23 Jun 2010. PMID: 17431378
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  7. Soper DE. Infections of the female pelvis. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Inc; 2009
  8. Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's principles and practice of infectious diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Inc; 2009
  9. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/OBGYN/29/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/OBGYN.xml
  10. British Association for Sexual Health and HIV Clinical Effectiveness Group. National guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of gonorrhoea in adults 2005. http://www.bashh.org. Accessed 29 Mar 2010.
  11. Ross J, Judlin P. 2012 European guideline for the management of pelvic inflammatory disease. http://www.iusti.org. Jun 2012. Accessed 17 Jul 2013.
  12. Expert Working Group on Canadian Guidelines for Sexually Transmitted Infections. Canadian guidelines on sexually transmitted infections. http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/std-mts/sti-its/pdf/sti-its-eng.pdf. Jan 2008. Accessed 23 Apr 2010
  13. Shepherd SM. Pelvic inflammatory disease. eMedicine. http://emedicine.medscape.com. Feb 2010. Accessed 18 Sep 2010.
  14. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Management of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (green- top 32). http://www.rcog.org.uk. Nov 2008. Accessed 16 Sep 2010.
  15. World Health Organization. Guidelines for the management of sexually transmitted infections. WHO. http://www.who.int. 2001.
  16. Expert Working Group on Canadian Guidelines for Sexually Transmitted Infections. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca. Jan 2010. Accessed 17 Sep 2010.
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)-CDC fact sheet. CDC. http://www.cdc.gov. Accessed 17 Jul 2013.
  18. Lazaro N. Sexually transmitted infections in primary care 2013 (RCGP/BASHH). Royal College of General Practitioners. http://www.rcgp.org.uk. 2013. Accessed 30 May 2014.
  19. Ministry of Health Malaysia. National antibiotic guideline 2014, 2nd edition. Pharmaceutical Services Divisions, Ministry of Health Malaysia. http://www.pharmacy.gov.my. Dec 2014. Accessed 16 Jul 2015.
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