Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is the ascent of bacteria from the vagina or cervix resulting in infection of the reproductive organs eg uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries. It may also be a complication of sexually transmitted infections.
The most common symptoms of PID are lower abdominal pain (crampy or dull) that usually starts a few days after the onset of the last menstrual period, dyspareunia, abnormal vaginal or cervical discharge, postcoital or irregular vaginal bleeding, dysuria, fever, nausea and vomiting, although some have minimal symptoms or silent pelvic inflammatory disease.

Patient Education

  • Patient needs to be informed about the nature of the infection & the importance of taking the full course of medication
  • Counsel patients on possible complications of sexually transmitted infection (STI)
  • Inform the patient of the possible short-term effects of PID (eg tubo-ovarian abscess) as well as long-term consequence (eg infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain)
    • Incidence of long-term adverse effect of PID is directly related to the number of recurrences of PID
  • Patients should be advised to avoid unprotected sex until they & their partners have completed therapy & follow-up

Advise patients on how to lower their risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs):

  • Tailor counseling to the patient’s specific risk factors
  • Abstinence, condom use
  • Careful selection of partners

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27 Nov 2017
Transdermal oestradiol added to progesterone reduces menopause-related depression, researchers reported at the annual meeting of The North American Menopause Society in Philadelphia, US.
Tracy TC Kwan, BSc (Nursing), MPH; Hextan YS Ngan, MBBS, FHKAM (O&G), MD (HK), FRCOG, 01 Aug 2013

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a prevalent disease worldwide. Consequences of HPV infection vary, depending on the infected individuals and the HPV genotype involved. Life-threatening consequences are not uncommon, and cervical cancer is a clear demonstration of the virus’s potency. While the incidence of cervical cancer is heavily concentrated on developing countries,1 the impact of HPV-related diseases on developed countries has not ceased. In the United States alone, HPV infections are the most common sexually transmitted disease with an estimated 5 million new cases being diagnosed in 2000 among young adults, incurring nearly US$3 billion in terms of direct medical costs.2 A multinational study involving 18,498 women showed that cervical HPV prevalence varied greatly geographically, ranging from the low of 1.6% in North Vietnam to the high of 27% in Nigeria. In general, HPV prevalence peaked among young, sexually active women and declined with age. In selected countries, however, a second peak was noted in women older than 55 years.3 The high prevalence of HPV-related diseases incurs a heavy burden on the healthcare systems of developed and developing countries alike, which renders HPV research and prevention a global public health imperative. On an individual level, the afflictions caused by HPV-related diseases go beyond that of physical suffering to affecting the psychological well-being of the infected. This is the focus of our paper.

27 Nov 2017
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global problem. Chronic HBV infection is probably the most common maternal infection encountered in Hong Kong, China, and Southeast Asia. In Hong Kong, which is one of the endemic areas, immunisation against HBV was first provided in 1983 to infants born to mothers who were screened positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Immunisation became widespread since November 1988, but HBsAg-positive mothers are still encountered frequently.1
GC Kang, VK Yeow, 01 Feb 2015

Craniofacial abnormalities affect a significant proportion of society. Cleft lip and/or palate, for example, occurs in 1 per 500–700 births, depending on geography and ethnicity. The costs in terms of morbidity, psychological disturbance, and social and workplace exclusion are considerable for patients and their families, and society. The average incidence of new cleft cases is 2 clefts per 1,000 live births in the combined populations of Thailand, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam.1