parkinson's%20disease%20-and-%20parkinson's%20disease%20dementia
PARKINSON'S DISEASE & PARKINSON'S DISEASE DEMENTIA

Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is common, age-related and chronic.

It is caused by loss or degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain.

Onset of symptoms and progression of the disease is gradual.

Motor signs and symptoms include resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability.

Parkinson's disease dementia indicates loss of intellectual functions including memory, significant deterioration in the ability to carry out day-to-day activities and changes in social behavior are often noted.

Parkinson's%20disease%20-and-%20parkinson's%20disease%20dementia Signs and Symptoms

Introduction

  • Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a common, age-related, chronic, progressive disorder caused by loss or degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain
  • Pathologic hallmark is loss of dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons with surviving neurons often containing a characteristic cytoplasmic inclusion body (Lewy body)
  • Increased prevalence and incidence rates are noted in the elderly
  • Men have higher incidence rate, with relative risk 1.5 times more than in women

Signs and Symptoms

  • Early symptoms are subtle and occur gradually

Motor signs and symptoms

  • Resting tremor
  • Rigidity
  • Bradykinesia
  • Postural instability

Nonmotor signs and symptoms

  • Autonomic (eg gastrointestinal dysfunction, urinary and sexual dysfunction, orthostatic hypotension, hyperhidrosis)
  • Sleep disorders (eg impaired sleep initiation and maintenance, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness)
  • Sensory (eg pain, hyposmia, visual dysfunction)
  • Neuropsychiatric (eg depression, anxiety and panic attacks, dementia, psychosis)
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
23 Apr 2018
Long‐term treatment with perampanel in the adjunctive setting appears to provide improved seizure control without raising new safety/tolerability signals in patients with epilepsy, particularly those with secondarily generalized seizures at baseline, according to the results of an open-label extension of phase III trials.
Audrey Abella, 20 Mar 2020
The addition of highly purified cannabidiol (CBD) into an antiepileptic regimen led to reductions in convulsive seizure rates in children with Dravet syndrome (DS), the GWPCARE2* study has shown.
27 May 2020
High rather than low levels of neonatal 25(OH)D3 pose an increased risk of incident epilepsy in early childhood, a finding that may be attributed to chance, confounding, or late gestational vitamin D exposure, according to a study.
Jairia Dela Cruz, 29 Jan 2020
In the treatment of idiopathic generalized epilepsy, switching from valproate to other antiepileptic drugs due to potential childbearing issues may prove detrimental, heightening the risk of poor seizure control, as shown in a recent study.