parkinson's%20disease%20-and-%20parkinson's%20disease%20dementia
PARKINSON'S DISEASE & PARKINSON'S DISEASE DEMENTIA

Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is common, age-related and chronic.

It is caused by loss or degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain.

Onset of symptoms and progression of the disease is gradual.

Motor signs and symptoms include resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability.

Parkinson's disease dementia indicates loss of intellectual functions including memory, significant deterioration in the ability to carry out day-to-day activities and changes in social behavior are often noted.

Parkinson's%20disease%20-and-%20parkinson's%20disease%20dementia Signs and Symptoms

Introduction

  • Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a common, age-related, chronic, progressive disorder caused by loss or degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain
  • Pathologic hallmark is loss of dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons with surviving neurons often containing a characteristic cytoplasmic inclusion body (Lewy body)
  • Increased prevalence and incidence rates are noted in the elderly
  • Men have higher incidence rate, with relative risk 1.5 times more than in women

Signs and Symptoms

  • Early symptoms are subtle and occur gradually

Motor signs and symptoms

  • Resting tremor
  • Rigidity
  • Bradykinesia
  • Postural instability

Nonmotor signs and symptoms

  • Autonomic (eg gastrointestinal dysfunction, urinary and sexual dysfunction, orthostatic hypotension, hyperhidrosis)
  • Sleep disorders (eg impaired sleep initiation and maintenance, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness)
  • Sensory (eg pain, hyposmia, visual dysfunction)
  • Neuropsychiatric (eg depression, anxiety and panic attacks, dementia, psychosis)
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
2 days ago
Tetanus toxoid 5 Lf, diphtheria toxoid 2 Lf, pertussis toxoid 2.5 mcg, filamentous haemagglutinin 5 mcg, fimbriae types 2 and 3 5 mcg, pertactin 3 mcg
Pearl Toh, 22 Oct 2020
The combination therapy comprising carfilzomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (KCd) is effective, with a tolerable safety profile, in an Asian cohort with high-risk multiple myeloma (MM) — thus providing a more economical alternative as a potential upfront regimen in resource-limited settings, according to leading experts during a myeloma education webinar.
Jairia Dela Cruz, Yesterday
The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram holds promise in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease, reducing amyloid-β-42 levels in cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue in older adults with normal cognitive function, according to recent evidence.
Roshini Claire Anthony, 13 Nov 2020

Diabetes is a key risk factor for heart failure (HF), which is the leading cause of hospitalization in patients with or without diabetes. SGLT-2* inhibitors (SGLT-2is) have been shown to reduce the risk of hospitalization for HF (HHF) regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes.