parkinson's%20disease%20-and-%20parkinson's%20disease%20dementia
PARKINSON'S DISEASE & PARKINSON'S DISEASE DEMENTIA

Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is common, age-related and chronic.

It is caused by loss or degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain.

Onset of symptoms and progression of the disease is gradual.

Motor signs and symptoms include resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability.

Parkinson's disease dementia indicates loss of intellectual functions including memory, significant deterioration in the ability to carry out day-to-day activities and changes in social behavior are often noted.

Introduction

  • Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a common, age-related, chronic, progressive disorder caused by loss or degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain
  • Pathologic hallmark is loss of dopaminergic substantia nigra neurons with surviving neurons often containing a characteristic cytoplasmic inclusion body (Lewy body)
  • Increased prevalence & incidence rates are noted in the elderly
  • Men have higher incidence rate, with relative risk 1.5 times more than in women

Signs and Symptoms

  • Early symptoms are subtle and occur gradually

Motor signs and symptoms

  • Resting tremor
  • Rigidity
  • Bradykinesia
  • Postural instability

Nonmotor signs and symptoms

  • Autonomic (eg gastrointestinal dysfunction, urinary and sexual dysfunction, orthostatic hypotension, hyperhidrosis)
  • Sleep disorders (eg impaired sleep initiation and maintenance, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness)
  • Sensory (eg pain, hyposmia, visual dysfunction)
  • Neuropsychiatric (eg depression, anxiety and panic attacks, dementia, psychosis)
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Elvira Manzano, 3 days ago
Bisphosphonates have proven antifracture efficacy and remain to be the cornerstone of osteoporosis treatment. However, a drug holiday is of particular importance with bisphosphonates due to some signals with long-term use of the drug, including rare incidence of atypical femoral fracture (AFF) and osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), says a leading endocrinologist at AFOS 2017.
Pearl Toh, 13 Oct 2017
Women with higher plasma tryptophan concentrations were less likely to have poor sleep quality during pregnancy, especially among those with anxiety symptoms, according to the GUSTO* study.
5 days ago
Second eye cataract surgery provides greater improvement in visual function and quality of life compared with first eye cataract surgery alone, a recent study claims.
4 days ago
The size and shape of a person’s face may predict sex drive and intended infidelity, research has shown.