parkinson's%20disease%20-and-%20parkinson's%20disease%20dementia
PARKINSON'S DISEASE & PARKINSON'S DISEASE DEMENTIA

Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is common, age-related and chronic.

It is caused by loss or degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain.

Onset of symptoms and progression of the disease is gradual.

Motor signs and symptoms include resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability.

Parkinson's disease dementia indicates loss of intellectual functions including memory, significant deterioration in the ability to carry out day-to-day activities and changes in social behavior are often noted.

Parkinson's%20disease%20-and-%20parkinson's%20disease%20dementia Patient Education

Patient Education

  • Educate the patient on the nature of the illness, its treatment, etc

Lifestyle Modification

 Exercise

  • May improve function
  • Prevent falls and improve mobility
  • Upright posture and gait training
  • Extension exercise of neck, trunk and legs
    • Formal exercise program where home exercises are performed daily
    • Refresher exercise every 6-12 months
Nutrition
  • Gastrointestinal musculature impairment may cause swallowing and chewing difficulties
  • Gastrointestinal disturbances due to prescribed medications may occur
  • Assist patient in maintaining proper nutritional status through balanced diet and good eating habits
    • Nutritional supplements may be given if required
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Dr. Richard Shek-Kwan Chang, 11 Oct 2018
A 38-year-old right-handed man had had epilepsy since 2 months of age. There was no relevant family history. Perinatal history was unremarkable. No other risk factors such as central nervous system infection or cerebral trauma were identified. Developmental history did not show major delay. His epilepsy was uncontrolled despite trying valproate, carbamazepine, clobazam, levetiracetam, oxcarbamazepine and perampanel.