Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is common, age-related and chronic.
It is caused by loss or degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the midbrain.
Onset of symptoms and progression of the disease is gradual.
Motor signs and symptoms include resting tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability.
Parkinson's disease dementia indicates loss of intellectual functions
including memory, significant deterioration in the ability to carry out
day-to-day activities and changes in social behavior are often noted.
A 38-year-old right-handed man had had epilepsy since 2 months of age. There was no relevant family history. Perinatal history was unremarkable. No other risk factors such as central nervous system infection or cerebral trauma were identified. Developmental history did not show major delay. His epilepsy was uncontrolled despite trying valproate, carbamazepine, clobazam, levetiracetam, oxcarbamazepine and perampanel.