pancreatic%20cancer
PANCREATIC CANCER
Pancreatic cancer is malignancy arising from the pancreas.
It is the 13th most common cancer in the world, 10th most common in the United States, and 4th leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United Stated and Europe.
Exocrine tumors account for 95% of malignant pancreatic disease.
It is more common in women.
The median age of occurrence is at 71 years old.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Jaundice
    • Common in patients w/ malignancy in the head of the pancreas
  • Abdominal pain
    • Common in patients w/ tumors located in the body and tail of the pancreas
  • Weight loss
  • Back pain
  • Symptoms secondary to compression caused by the tumor:
    • Nausea/vomiting
    • Anorexia
    • Dyspepsia
    • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Symptoms caused by biliary obstruction:
    • Dark urine
    • Lightly colored-grayish stool
    • Pruritus
    • Infections (cholangitis, pancreatitis)
    • Scleral icterus
  • Symptoms caused by pancreatic enzyme insufficiency:
    • Malabsorption
    • Fatty stools
    • Increased flatulence
    • Ascites

Risk Factors

High Risk:
  • Familial atypical multiple-mole melanoma (FAMMM)
  • Hereditary pancreatitis
  • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
  • >3 1st-degree relatives diagnosed w/ pancreatic cancer
Moderate Risk:
  • 2 1st-degree relatives diagnosed w/ pancreatic cancer
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Chronic pancreatitis
  • BRCA2 mutation carrier
  • PALB2 mutation carrier
Low Risk:
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Diabetes mellitus (DM)
  • Obesity/Increased body mass index (BMI)
  • Occupational exposure to chemicals (eg beta-naphthylamine, benzidine)
  • Heavy alcohol consumption
  • One 1st-degree relative diagnosed w/ pancreatic cancer
  • Increased consumption of red/processed meat and dairy products
  • Low intake of fruits & vegetables
  • Low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels
  • History of gallstones & H. pylori infection
  • BRCA1 mutation carrier
  • Familial adenomatous polyposis
  • Li-Fraumeni syndrome
  • Lynch syndrome
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Gastroenterology - Malaysia digital copy today!
DOWNLOAD
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Elvira Manzano, 3 days ago
Bisphosphonates have proven antifracture efficacy and remain to be the cornerstone of osteoporosis treatment. However, a drug holiday is of particular importance with bisphosphonates due to some signals with long-term use of the drug, including rare incidence of atypical femoral fracture (AFF) and osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), says a leading endocrinologist at AFOS 2017.
11 hours ago
Breast cancer patients have notably different microbiomes in the local breast tissue and urinary tract, a recent study reveals. Particularly, species in the Methylobacterium genus are reduced in the local breast tissue while the urinary tract is enriched in gram-positive bacteria.
Pearl Toh, 13 Oct 2017
Women with higher plasma tryptophan concentrations were less likely to have poor sleep quality during pregnancy, especially among those with anxiety symptoms, according to the GUSTO* study.
Tristan Manalac, 13 hours ago
Statin use, particularly in smokers, obese patients and nondiabetics, has a strong and dose-dependent association with decreasing risk of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), according to a new study.