overactive%20bladder
OVERACTIVE BLADDER

Overactive bladder or non-neurogenic overactive bladder is a syndrome characterized by urinary urgency, frequency, nocturia and urgency incontinence.
It is not a disease but a symptom complex that generally is not a life-threatening condition. It is also known as bladder spasms.
Urgency is the complaint of sudden, compelling desire to pass urine that is difficult to deny. It is considered a hallmark symptom of overactive bladder.
Frequency is usually micturition of >7 episodes during waking hours.
Nocturia is the interruption of sleep one or more times because of the need to void.
Urgency incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine associated with a sudden compelling desire to void.

Introduction

  • Overactive bladder (OAB) is also known as bladder spasms

Definition

  • Defined by the International Continence Society (ICS) as consisting of the following symptoms: urinary urgency, with or without urgency urinary incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia, in the absence of causative infection or pathologic conditions, and suggestive of underlying detrusor overactivity (phasic increases in detrusor pressure)

Signs and Symptoms

  • Urinary urgency
    • Complaint of sudden, compelling desire to pass urine which is difficult to defer
    • Considered as the hallmark of overactive bladder (OAB)
    • Number of voids and number of incontinence episodes are used to measure treatment responses
  • Urinary frequency
    • Measured using a voiding diary
    • Number of voiding would vary based on hours of sleep, fluid intake, comorbid medical conditions and other relevant factors
  • Nocturia
    • Complaint of interruption of sleep due to the need to void
  • Urgency urinary incontinence
    • Involuntary leakage of urine, associated with sudden compelling desire to void
    • Measured using a diary and by the quantity of urine leakage using pad tests

Risk Factors

  • ≥40 years old
  • Obesity
  • Previous pelvic and prostate surgery
  • Neurological conditions such as diabetic neuropathy, stroke, spinal cord injury, dementia, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis

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