Overactive bladder or non-neurogenic overactive bladder is a syndrome characterized by urinary urgency, frequency, nocturia and urgency incontinence.
It is not a disease but a symptom complex that generally is not a life-threatening condition. It is also known as bladder spasms.
Urgency is the complaint of sudden, compelling desire to pass urine that is difficult to deny. It is considered a hallmark symptom of overactive bladder.
Frequency is usually micturition of >7 episodes during waking hours.
Nocturia is the interruption of sleep one or more times because of the need to void.
Urgency incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine associated with a sudden compelling desire to void.
Overactive bladder (OAB) is also known as bladder spasms
Defined by the International Continence Society (ICS) as consisting of the following symptoms: urinary urgency, with or without urgency urinary incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia, in the absence of causative infection or pathologic conditions, and suggestive of underlying detrusor overactivity (phasic increases in detrusor pressure)
Signs and Symptoms
Complaint of sudden, compelling desire to pass urine which is difficult to defer
Considered as the hallmark of overactive bladder (OAB)
Number of voids and number of incontinence episodes are used to measure treatment responses
Measured using a voiding diary
Number of voiding would vary based on hours of sleep, fluid intake, comorbid medical conditions and other relevant factors
Complaint of interruption of sleep due to the need to void
Urgency urinary incontinence
Involuntary leakage of urine, associated with sudden compelling desire to void
Measured using a diary and by the quantity of urine leakage using pad tests
≥40 years old
Previous pelvic and prostate surgery
Neurological conditions such as diabetic neuropathy, stroke, spinal cord injury, dementia, Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis
Dr. Hsu Li Yang, Dr. Tan Thuan Tong, Dr. Andrea Kwa,
08 Jan 2021
Antimicrobial resistance has become increasingly dire as the rapid emergence of drug resistance, especially gram-negative pathogens, has outpaced the development of new antibiotics. At a recent virtual symposium, Dr Hsu Li Yang, Vice Dean (Global Health) and Programme Leader (Infectious Diseases), NUS Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, presented epidemiological data on multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Asia, while Dr Tan Thuan Tong, Head and Senior Consultant, Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital (SGH), focused on the role of ceftazidime-avibactam in MDR GNB infections. Dr Andrea Kwa, Assistant Director of Research, Department of Pharmacy, SGH, joined the panel in an interactive fireside chat, to discuss challenges, practical considerations, and solutions in MDR gram-negative infections. This Pfizer-sponsored symposium was chaired by Dr Ng Shin Yi, Head and Senior Consultant of Surgical Intensive Care, SGH.
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