Overactive bladder or non-neurogenic overactive bladder is a syndrome characterized by urinary urgency, frequency, nocturia and urgency incontinence.
It is not a disease but a symptom complex that generally is not a life-threatening condition. It is also known as bladder spasms.
Urgency is the complaint of sudden, compelling desire to pass urine that is difficult to deny. It is considered a hallmark symptom of overactive bladder.
Frequency is usually micturition of >7 episodes during waking hours.
Nocturia is the interruption of sleep one or more times because of the need to void.
Urgency incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine associated with a sudden compelling desire to void.
The clinician should discuss the normal and abnormal bladder function, including voiding frequency and toileting behavior
With the initiation of antimuscarinic medications, some adverse effects such as dry mouth and constipation may indicate that the treatment is starting to have an effect and this should be thoroughly discussed and explained to the patient
Patients should be informed that overactive bladder (OAB) is a symptom complex with variable and chronic course that needs to be managed over time and primarily affects the quality of life
Helps the patient understand that voiding is a behavior that can be managed and the success in the treatment requires a willing participant who is informed and engaged in the treatment process
Lessen fluid intake in the evening or before bedtime
Eliminate alcohol and caffeine, particularly in the evening
Nicotine can irritate the bladder and cause bladder contraction and urgency
Coughing due to smoking will cause urinary leakage
To reduce stress, techniques such as meditation, yoga, breathing techniques and music relaxation may relieve symptoms
Foods such as tomato-based, highly spiced, fruits and fruit juices, frizzy drinks and foods containing chocolate, tea and coffee should be eliminated in the diet, as this can irritate and trigger overactive bladder (OAB)
Increase intake of dietary fiber as constipation can put pressure in an OAB
Being obese and overweight might increase symptoms of OAB, as this increases the pressure on the bladder or other neurological conditions
Pelvic muscle floor should be considered in patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction due to multiple sclerosis or stroke and other neurological conditions where there is a potential voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor
This is due to the adverse effect of the anticholinergic drugs
The patient should be advised to sip water
Products used to help living with overactive bladder (OAB)
Find the one that will fit inside the handbag or in the glove box of the car
Protective Underwear or Pads
Those patients with leakage issue, using or wearing a pad can help with any leakage of urine, from mild, medium to heavy
This is advised for those who experience nocturnal enuresis
Switching from efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (EFV/FTC/TDF) to the new bictegravir/ emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (BIC/FTC/TAF) regimen maintained high rates of virological suppression in adults who are living with HIV*, according to a study presented at AIDS 2020.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) containing either long-acting injectable cabotegravir (CAB) or tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) is safe and effective for transgender women (TGW) and cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM), but CAB results in a much lower HIV incidence compared to TDF/FTC, results of the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 083 have shown.
Monthly prophylaxis with the fixed-dose combination of naphthoquine-azithromycin (NQAZ) is well tolerated and confers significant protection against infection with Plasmodium parasites among individuals residing in malaria-endemic areas in Southeast Asia, as shown in the results of a phase III trial.