overactive%20bladder
OVERACTIVE BLADDER

Overactive bladder or non-neurogenic overactive bladder is a syndrome characterized by urinary urgency, frequency, nocturia and urgency incontinence.
It is not a disease but a symptom complex that generally is not a life-threatening condition. It is also known as bladder spasms.
Urgency is the complaint of sudden, compelling desire to pass urine that is difficult to deny. It is considered a hallmark symptom of overactive bladder.
Frequency is usually micturition of >7 episodes during waking hours.
Nocturia is the interruption of sleep one or more times because of the need to void.
Urgency incontinence is the involuntary leakage of urine associated with a sudden compelling desire to void.

Patient Education

  • The clinician should discuss the normal and abnormal bladder function, including voiding frequency and toileting behavior
  • With the initiation of antimuscarinic medications, some adverse effects such as dry mouth and constipation may indicate that the treatment is starting to have an effect and this should be thoroughly discussed and explained to the patient
  • Patients should be informed that overactive bladder (OAB) is a symptom complex with variable and chronic course that needs to be managed over time and primarily affects the quality of life
  • Helps the patient understand that voiding is a behavior that can be managed and the success in the treatment requires a willing participant who is informed and engaged in the treatment process

Lifestyle Modification

  • Fluid intake
    • Lessen fluid intake in the evening or before bedtime
    • Eliminate alcohol and caffeine, particularly in the evening
  • Smoking cessation
    • Nicotine can irritate the bladder and cause bladder contraction and urgency
    • Coughing due to smoking will cause urinary leakage
  • Stress
    • To reduce stress, techniques such as meditation, yoga, breathing techniques and music relaxation may relieve symptoms
  • Diet
    • Foods such as tomato-based, highly spiced, fruits and fruit juices, frizzy drinks and foods containing chocolate, tea and coffee should be eliminated in the diet, as this can irritate and trigger overactive bladder (OAB)
    • Increase intake of dietary fiber as constipation can put pressure in an OAB
  • Exercise
    • Being obese and overweight might increase symptoms of OAB, as this increases the pressure on the bladder or other neurological conditions
    • Pelvic muscle floor should be considered in patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction due to multiple sclerosis or stroke and other neurological conditions where there is a potential voluntary contraction of the pelvic floor
  • Dry Mouth
    • This is due to the adverse effect of the anticholinergic drugs
    • The patient should be advised to sip water
Products used to help living with overactive bladder (OAB)
  • Portable Urinals
    • Find the one that will fit inside the handbag or in the glove box of the car
  • Protective Underwear or Pads
    • Those patients with leakage issue, using or wearing a pad can help with any leakage of urine, from mild, medium to heavy
  • Waterproof Bedding
    • This is advised for those who experience nocturnal enuresis
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