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OVARIAN MASS
Ovarian cysts are typically noted after clinical screening, or as a result of exam for a suspected pelvic mass, or an incidental finding in investigations done for other reasons.
Most ovarian masses manifest with few or mild nonspecific symptoms.
Ovarian masses in women of reproductive age are mostly benign but the risk of malignancy increases with age.
Ovarian cysts in the prepubertal patients especially after the first week of life are abnormal and likely to be neoplastic. In adolescent patients, majority of ovarian masses are functional cysts.

Introduction

  • Ovarian cysts in prepubertal patients especially after the first week of life are abnormal and likely to be neoplastic, prompt ultrasound (US) evaluation and referral are warranted 
  • In adolescent patients, majority of ovarian masses are functional cysts
    • The most common neoplastic ovarian tumor in this age group is benign cystic teratoma of the ovary
  • Ovarian mass in women of reproductive age is mostly benign but the risk of malignancy increases with age
    • In most adnexal masses, malignancy is found in only 7-13% of premenopausal and 8-45% of postmenopausal patients
    • Risk of malignancy for ovarian tumor in patients <45 years is <1 in 15 while in postmenopausal women, the figure is 50% at the time of laparotomy 

Signs and Symptoms

  • Most ovarian masses manifest with few or mild nonspecific symptoms
    • Common symptoms include abdominal distension, abdominal pain or discomfort, metrorrhagia, dyspareunia, infertility, lower abdominal pressure sensation and urinary or gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms
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