otitis%20media%20-%20acute
OTITIS MEDIA - ACUTE
Otitis media is a general term used to describe inflammation of the middle ear which may be caused by an acute infection.
The symptoms are usually nonspecific and include otalgia (pulling of ear in an infant), irritability, otorrhea with or without fever.
Symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection may also be present.

Otitis%20media%20-%20acute Treatment

Pharmacotherapy

Symptomatic Therapy

Analgesics

  • Eg Paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) [eg Ibuprofen]
    • Opioids may occasionally be indicated
  • Considered the mainstay of pain relief for acute otitis media (AOM)
  • Effective analgesia for mild-moderate pain

Antibiotic Therapy

  • There are no data regarding initially withholding antimicrobial therapy in adult patients w/ AOM
    • Treatment prevents development of complications

Amoxicillin/High-dose Amoxicillin

  • Amoxicillin at sufficient doses is still considered the 1st-line agent for AOM
  • It is effective against most of the bacteria which cause AOM including susceptible & intermediate-resistant pneumococci
  • In areas where Penicillin-resistant pneumococci are common, high-dose Amoxicillin should be given

Amoxicillin/clavulanic Acid (High dose)

  • High doses of Amoxicillin combined w/ clavulanic acid are recommended for patients who fail standard Amoxicillin therapy or in those who present w/ severe illness
  • This combination will provide coverage for beta-lactamase-producing organisms (eg H influenzae & M catarrhalis along w/ Penicillin-resistant S pneumoniae)

Cephalosporins (2nd & 3rd Generation)

  • Cefdinir, Cefpodoxime, Cefprozil & Cefuroxime are the preferred agents because of their effectiveness against drug-resistant S pneumoniae, H influenzae & M catarrhalis
    • These agents may be considered in patients w/ non-type 1 hypersensitivity reaction to Penicillin
  • Ceftriaxone [intravenous (IV)/intramuscular (IM)] may be considered in patients unable to take oral medications (eg vomiting)
    • Also recommended x 3 days in patients who fail Amoxicillin/clavulanate
    • Has superior efficacy to S pneumoniae compared w/ alternative oral antibiotics

Co-trimoxazole

  • Co-trimoxazole may be considered in patients w/ type 1 allergy to Penicillin
  • Use may be limited by local resistance patterns

Erythromycin/sulfafurazole

  • May be considered in patients w/ type 1 allergy to Penicillin
  • Depending on local resistance patterns, may be preferred over Co-trimoxazole

Advanced Macrolides

  • Eg Azithromycin or Clarithromycin
  • Active against the major pathogens that cause AOM
  • These agents have decreased activity against drug-resistant S pneumoniae

Clindamycin

  • May be considered in a patient who has persistent AOM after previous complete antibiotic therapy & in whom tympanocentesis is not possible for Gram stain & culture
  • Clindamycin may be effective against Penicillin-resistant pneumococcal infection not responding to other treatment
  • Clindamycin is not active against H influenzae or M catarrhalis & should not be used if these are suspected

Duration of Antibiotic Therapy

  • Optimal duration of antimicrobial therapy in AOM patients is uncertain
    • May continue antibiotics x 5-7 days in mild-moderate illness & up to 10 days if severe
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Infectious Diseases - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
21 Feb 2021
The efficacy and safety of the two-bag (TB) system are comparable to those of the one-bag (OB) system in adults with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), results of a study have shown. Both approaches can be considered in adult DKA patients.
01 Dec 2020
Tetanus toxoid 5 Lf, diphtheria toxoid 2 Lf, pertussis toxoid 2.5 mcg, filamentous haemagglutinin 5 mcg, fimbriae types 2 and 3 5 mcg, pertactin 3 mcg
Dr. Hsu Li Yang, Dr. Tan Thuan Tong, Dr. Andrea Kwa, 08 Jan 2021
Antimicrobial resistance has become increasingly dire as the rapid emergence of drug resistance, especially gram-negative pathogens, has outpaced the development of new antibiotics. At a recent virtual symposium, Dr Hsu Li Yang, Vice Dean (Global Health) and Programme Leader (Infectious Diseases), NUS Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, presented epidemiological data on multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Asia, while Dr Tan Thuan Tong, Head and Senior Consultant, Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital (SGH), focused on the role of ceftazidime-avibactam in MDR GNB infections. Dr Andrea Kwa, Assistant Director of Research, Department of Pharmacy, SGH, joined the panel in an interactive fireside chat, to discuss challenges, practical considerations, and solutions in MDR gram-negative infections. This Pfizer-sponsored symposium was chaired by Dr Ng Shin Yi, Head and Senior Consultant of Surgical Intensive Care, SGH.
05 Feb 2021

Primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD) and allergies are two groups of conditions related to the immune system. However, they are uniquely different in terms of symptoms and treatment.