otitis%20media%20-%20acute%20(pediatric)
OTITIS MEDIA - ACUTE (PEDIATRIC)
Otitis media is a general term used to describe inflammation of the middle ear which may be caused by an acute infection.
The symptoms are usually nonspecific and include otalgia (pulling of ear in an infant), irritability, otorrhea with or without fever.
Symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection may also be present

Definition

  • Defined as the presence of inflammation of the middle ear which may be caused by an acute infection
  • Accompanied by moderate to severe bulging of the tympanic membrane or otorrhea

Etiology

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of acute otitis media followed by Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis & group A Streptococci (GAS)

Signs and Symptoms

Acute Otitis Media (AOM)

  • Usually nonspecific & includes otalgia (pulling of ear in an infant), irritability, otorrhea with or without fever
    • Symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) may also be present (eg cough, nasal discharge or stuffiness)

Middle Ear Effusion (MEE)

  • Apparent erythema of the tympanic membrane
  • Otalgia is apparent by noticeable discomfort of the ears that causes interference w/ or prevents normal sleep or activity

Risk Factors

  • Age <2 years
  • Male
  • Daycare attendance
  • Excessive pacifier use
  • Exposure to family members w/ history of acute otitis media or respiratory infections
  • Exposure to tobacco smoke and air pollution
  • Lack of or limited breastfeeding
  • Supine bottle feeding
  • Low socioeconomic status

Epidemiology

  • More common in children between 6 to 24 months of age
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