Otitis media is a general term used to describe inflammation of the middle ear which may be caused by an acute infection.
The symptoms are usually nonspecific and include otalgia (pulling of ear in an infant), irritability, otorrhea with or without fever.
Symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection may also be present
  1. American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Family Physicians, Subcommittee on Management of Acute Otitis Media. Diagnosis and management of acute otitis media. Pediatrics. 2004 May;113(5):1451-1465. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/113/5/1451.full.pdf. PMID: 15121972
  2. Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. Evidence based clinical practice guideline for medical management of acute otitis media in children 2 months to 13 years of age. Guideline 6a. 2004 Oct. http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/WorkArea/DownloadAsset.aspx?id=87856.
  3. Ramakrishnan K, Sparks RA, Berryhill WE. Diagnosis and treatment of otitis media. Am Fam Physician. 2007 Dec;76(11):1650-1658. http://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/1201/p1650.pdf. PMID: 18092706
  4. Kerschner JE. Otitis media. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, et al, eds. Nelson textbook of Pediatrics. 18th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, Elsevier; 2007.
  5. Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement (ICSI). ICSI health care guideline: diagnosis and treatment of otitis media in children. 9th ed; 2008 Jan
  6. MedWormhttp://www.medworm.com/rss/index.php/Pediatrics/33/http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/specialities/Pediatrics.xml
  7. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). Diagnosis and management of childhood otitis media in primary care: a national clinical guideline. SIGN Web Site. http://www.sign.ac.uk/guidelines/fulltext/66/section5.html. Feb 2003.
  8. CKS. Otitis media-acute. Clinical Knowledge Summaries. http://www.cks.library.nhs.uk/otitis_media_acute# 184731001. 2007
  9. Alberta Medical Association. Guideline for the diagnosis and management of acute otitis media. http://www.topalbertadoctors.org/NR/rdonlyres/7C92AE96-C4B5-4F6F839D48D2FFE9F726/0/AOM.pdf. 2008
  10. Lieberthal AS, Carroll AE, Chonmaitree T, et al. The diagnosis and management of acute otitis media. Pediatrics. 2013 Mar;131(3):e964-e999. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2013/02/20/peds.2012-3488.full.pdf+html. Accessed 06 May 2014. PMID: 23439909
  11. University of Michigan Health System (UMHS). Otitis media. University of Michigan Health System. May 2002.
  12. Le Saux N, Robinson JL; Canadian Paediatric Society, Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee. Management of acute otitis media in children six months of age and older. Paediatr Child Health. 2016 Jan;21(1):39-50. http://www.cps.ca/assets/pdfreactor/pdf.php?lang=en&paper=acute-otitis-media. PMID: 26941560
  13. Robinson CL; Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), ACIP Child/Adolescent Immunization Work Group. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Recommended Immunization Schedules for Persons Aged 0 Through 18 Years - United States, 2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016 Feb;65(4):86-87. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6504a4. Accessed 20 May 2016. PMID: 26845283
  14. Abes GT, Navarro-Locsin CG, Cabungcal AC, et al; Philippine Academy of Neurotology, Otology and Related Sciences; Philippine Society of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. Clinical practice guidelines: Acute otitis media in children. Philippine Society of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. https://pso-hns.org. Dec 2016.
  15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pediatric treatment recommendations. CDC. https://www.cdc.gov/. Feb 2017.
  16. Klein JO, Pelton S. Acute otitis media in children: Epidemiology, microbiology, clinical manifestations, and complications. UptoDate. https://www.uptodate.com/. Dec 2017.
  17. Klein JO, Pelton S. Acute otitis media in children: Treatment. UptoDate. https://www.uptodate.com/. Dec 2017.
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