osteoporosis
OSTEOPOROSIS
Osteoporosis is the progressive, systemic skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to increased bone fragility and susceptibility to fractures.
The more risk factors (eg history, of fracture, advanced age, comorbidities, impaired vision) that are present, the greater the risk of fracture.

Monitoring

Aim of monitoring is to increase adherence to therapy and to verify response to therapy
Bone Mineral Density (BMD) Measurement
  • Recommended every 1-3 years after initiation of therapy and every 2 years thereafter
  • Central DXA of the spine or hip is the gold standard for serial bone mineral density (BMD) assessment
    • Should be done every 2 years
    • If spine, hip or both cannot be assessed, 33% radius site can be used
  • Patient follow-up ideally should be done within the same facility using the same machine
  • Age-, disease- and treatment-related bone mineral density (BMD) changes can be monitored using Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) measurement of trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) 

Bone Turnover Markers

  • Bone resorption markers may be measured before starting therapy and 3 or 6 months after starting treatment
  • Bone formation markers may be measured before starting therapy and 6 months later
  • High levels of bone resorption markers are associated with an increased risk of osteoporotic fractures
    • Resorption markers may be used for assessing fracture risk in selected patients when bone mineral density (BMD) and clinical risk factors are not sufficient to make treatment decisions
Monitoring Therapy in Men with Osteoporosis
  • Patients can be monitored with bone mineral density (BMD) measurements as recommended for postmenopausal women
    • There may be limitations to the use of spine dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in aging men due to interference from osteophytes and vascular calcifications on the spine measurement
Reassessment of Postmenopausal Women on Long-Term Bisphosphonate Therapy
  • Postmenopausal women who have been taking oral bisphosphonates for ≥5 years or IV bisphosphonates for ≥3 years should be reassessed for presence of fractures prior to initiation and during therapy
  • If fractures occurred, treatment with bisphosphonates may be continued or may consider the use of other agents
  • If fracture-free, assess bone mineral density (BMD) T-score or fracture risk
    • If with hip bone mineral density (BMD) T-score of ≤-2.5 or with high fracture risk, consider continuing bisphosphonate therapy or may change into other alternative agents
    • If with normal bone mass and still no fractures, may consider withholding treatment and advise patient to follow-up every 2-3 years
Vertebral Imaging
  • Repeat vertebral imaging is indicated for patients with the following:
    • Documented height loss
    • Presence of vertebral pain
    • Changes in posture
    • Chest x-ray abnormalities
    • Due for reevaluation of treatment with possible withdrawal of therapy
    • Presence of vertebral fracture during off-treatment interval
Specialist Referral
  • Consider referral to a specialist if:
    • Fragility fractures are experienced
    • A non-major trauma fracture is sustained by a patient with normal BMD
    • Continued bone loss or recurrent fractures happens in a patient on therapy but has no clear causes of bone loss that are treatable
    • Osteoporosis has uncommon features, is severe, or rare secondary conditions are present, eg hyperparathyroidism, increased prolactin
    • A condition is present that makes management difficult, eg chronic kidney disease, malabsorption
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