osteoporosis
OSTEOPOROSIS
Osteoporosis is the progressive, systemic skeletal disease characterized by decreased bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to increased bone fragility and susceptibility to fractures.
The more risk factors (eg history, of fracture, advanced age, comorbidities, impaired vision) that are present, the greater the risk of fracture.

Differential Diagnosis

  • Pathological fracture
  • Secondary osteoporosis
Causes of Secondary Osteoporosis
  • Endocrine diseases [eg Cushing’s syndrome, hypogonadism (mostly in men), hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, type 1 or 2 diabetes, premature menopause, acromegaly, porphyria, growth hormone deficiency, etc]
  • Medications (eg corticosteroids, Heparin, anticonvulsants, immunosuppressants, aromatase inhibitors, gonadotropin-releasing hormone agents, proton pump inhibitors, Medroxyprogesterone, etc)
  • Chronic diseases (eg renal impairment, liver cirrhosis, malabsorption, rheumatoid arthritis, COPD, AIDS/HIV, ankylosing spondylitis, hemophilia, major depression, organ transplantation, Marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, etc)
  • Others (eg malnutrition, malignancy, excessive alcohol, prolonged immobility, pregnancy, total parenteral nutrition,etc)
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