Osteomyelitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the bone due to an infection resulting from hematogenous spread, contiguous spread from soft tissues and joints to bone, or direct inoculation into bone from surgery or trauma.
The infection is generally due to a single microorganism but polymicrobial infections may also occur. Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of infection.
Signs and symptoms include fever; inflammatory findings of erythema, warmth, pain and swelling over the involved area; draining sinus tracts over affected bone; limited movement of affected extremity; pain in the chest, back, abdomen or leg, and tenderness over involved vertebrae in patients with vertebral osteomyelitis; anorexia, vomiting and malaise.
Patients with chronic osteomyelitis may be predisposed to developing fibromyalgia, a study suggests. However, the risk may be attenuated by rigorous treatments for chronic osteomyelitis, especially in younger patients.
Chronic osteomyelitis (COM) appears to increase the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED) in middle-aged and older men, according to a population-based cohort study that is said to be the first to show an association between the two chronic inflammatory diseases.
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A wide spectrum of neurological manifestations, including some unusual neurological disease presentations, has been identified in Singaporean children with enterovirus infections, according to a recent study. This results in a relatively low incidence of long-term neurological sequelae.