Osteomyelitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the bone due to an infection resulting from hematogenous spread, contiguous spread from soft tissues and joints to bone, or direct inoculation into bone from surgery or trauma.
The infection is generally due to a single microorganism but polymicrobial infections may also occur. Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of infection.
Signs and symptoms include fever; inflammatory findings of erythema, warmth, pain and swelling over the involved area; draining sinus tracts over affected bone; limited movement of affected extremity; pain in the chest, back, abdomen or leg, and tenderness over involved vertebrae in patients with vertebral osteomyelitis; anorexia, vomiting and malaise.
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are reported to be the most common reason for women to visit their healthcare professionals. The urinary tract, the body’s system that produces, stores and eliminates urine, is made up of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra.
Receipt of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and standard titre measles containing vaccines (MCV) could reduce overall mortality by more than expected through their effects on the diseases they prevent, and receipt of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) may be linked to higher all-cause mortality, according to a systematic review.