Ophthalmia neonatorum is conjunctivitis occurring in a newborn during the first month of life.
It is also called neonatal conjunctivitis.
Organisms causing neonatal conjunctivitis are usually acquired from the infected birth canal of the mother during vaginal delivery, though some may acquire the infection from their immediate surroundings.
It is one of the leading cause of blindness in infants via corneal ulceration and subsequent opacification or perforation and endophthalmitis.
One of the leading cause of blindness in infants via corneal ulceration & subsequent opacification or perforation & endophthalmitis
Pneumonia & otitis media are reported in some of the newborn w/ Chlamydia conjunctivitis
Conjunctivitis occuring in a newborn during the first month of life
Organisms causing neonatal conjunctivitis are usually acquired from the infected birth canal of the mother during vaginal delivery, though some may acquire the infection from their immediate surroundings
Other bacterial causes of neonatal conjunctivitis
Bacteria may be transmitted to the infant after birth through air w/ association w/ obstructed nasolacrimal duct
Gram positive organisms:
Gram negative organisms:
Pseudomonas sp., rarely occur but may cause corneal perforation, blindness & death
Time of onset: 2-5 days postpartum
Conjunctival injection w/ discharge
Milder course w/o corneal & systemic involvement
Viral neonatal conjunctivitis
Herpes simplex (HSV) virus type 2 can rarely cause neonatal conjunctivitis
Time of onset: 3-15 days postpartum
Vesicular skin lesions of the lid or lid margin
Non-specific lid edema
Moderate conjunctival injection
Non-purulent serosanguinous discharge
True conjunctival membranes
Corneal geographic or micro-dendritic epithelial keratitis different from the typical adult herpetic dendrites
Signs and Symptoms
Eyelid & palpebral conjunctiva erythema & edema
Purulent eye discharge
Inadequate or no prenatal care
Maternal infections (especially sexually transmitted diseases) before & during pregnancy
Exposure of the infant to infectious organisms
Inadequacy of ocular prophylaxis immediately after birth
Organisms harboring in the mother’s birth canal
Increased shedding of organisms in the vaginal tract of the mother during the last trimester
Dr. Hsu Li Yang, Dr. Tan Thuan Tong, Dr. Andrea Kwa,
08 Jan 2021
Antimicrobial resistance has become increasingly dire as the rapid emergence of drug resistance, especially gram-negative pathogens, has outpaced the development of new antibiotics. At a recent virtual symposium, Dr Hsu Li Yang, Vice Dean (Global Health) and Programme Leader (Infectious Diseases), NUS Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, presented epidemiological data on multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Asia, while Dr Tan Thuan Tong, Head and Senior Consultant, Department of Infectious Diseases, Singapore General Hospital (SGH), focused on the role of ceftazidime-avibactam in MDR GNB infections. Dr Andrea Kwa, Assistant Director of Research, Department of Pharmacy, SGH, joined the panel in an interactive fireside chat, to discuss challenges, practical considerations, and solutions in MDR gram-negative infections. This Pfizer-sponsored symposium was chaired by Dr Ng Shin Yi, Head and Senior Consultant of Surgical Intensive Care, SGH.