Menelik MH Lee, MBBS, MRCOG, FHKCOG, FHKAM; Charles J Carter, MBChB, FRCS(urol); Tyrone T Carpenter, MBBS, BSc, MRCOG, MD, 20140601000000
Laparoscopic partial cystectomy is established as the optimal treatment of full thickness bladder endometriosis. Complete excision of the lesion is essential however over excision risks unnecessary reduction in bladder volume and may risk ureteric obstruction. The following case demonstrates a new technique of cystoscopic mapping and laparoscopic resection of bladder endometriosis, allowing complete removal of the endometriotic nodule while sparing maximum bladder capacity and minimising risk of injury to the ureteric orifices.
Krukenberg tumour is a metastatic signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary. This tumour is uncommon, accounting for 1–2% of all ovarian tumours. The stomach is the primary site in most Krukenberg tumour cases (70%), and the prognosis is generally poor. We report a case of a pregnant lady who was incidentally found to have a large ovarian mass during caesarean section which was later confirmed to be a Krukenberg tumour.
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Shilpa Kolhe, MBBS, MD, MRCOG; Shilpa Deb, MBBS, DGO, MRCOG,
01 Aug 2012
Dysmenorrhoea is a medical condition characterized by severe uterine pain during menstruation manifesting as cyclical lower abdominal or pelvic pain, which may also radiate to the back and thighs. The term dysmenorrhoea is derived from the Greek words ‘dys’ meaning difficult, painful or abnormal, ‘meno’ meaning month, and ‘rrhea’ meaning flow. It is commonly divided into primary dysmenorrhoea, where there is no coexistent pathology, and secondary dysmenorrhoea where there is an identifiable pathological condition known to contribute to painful menstruation. Symptoms of primary dysmenorrhoea begin a few hours before the start of menstruation and are often relieved during the first few days of bleeding. The initial onset of primary dysmenorrhoea is usually shortly after menarche (6–12 months), when ovulatory cycles are established. Secondary dysmenorrhoea can also occur at any time after menarche but is most commonly observed in women in their third and fourth decade of life in association with an existing condition.
Adolescent females often experience menstrual problems, and these are usually related to mood changes. In this study, the association between dysmenorrhea and depressive symptoms, anxiety, and premenstrual syndrome was examined.