obsessive-compulsive%20disorder
OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the presence of either obsessions or compulsions, but more commonly by both symptoms that can cause marked impairment or distress.
Obsession is a recurrent, persistent, intrusive, unwanted thought, image or urge that cause distressing emotions (eg anxiety and disgust).
Compulsion is a repetitive behavior or mental act that the person feels driven to perform, in order to lessen the distress caused by the obsession.
Anxiety is the central feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Introduction

  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by the presence of either obsessions or compulsions, but more commonly by both symptoms

Definition

  • Obsession is a repeated, intrusive, unwanted thought, image or urge that cause distressing emotions (eg anxiety and disgust)
    • Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder attach to the occurrence and/or content of the intrusions. They tend to believe that these urges or thoughts are immoral or dangerous and that they are able to prevent harm to themselves or another person
  • Compulsion is a repetitive behavior or mental act that the person feels driven to perform, in order to lessen the distress caused by the obsession
    • It aims to reduce harm or make the patient feel comfortable
  • Anxiety is a central feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder

Epidemiology

  • There is a 1.1-1.8% prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder worldwide
  • During adulthood, there is a slight higher prevalence in women but in childhood men are the ones commonly affected

Signs and Symptoms

Common Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

  • Obsessions
    • Fear of contamination
    • Fear of harm coming to self
    • Fear of causing harm to someone else
    • Fear of being unacceptable
    • Fear of making a mistake
    • Need for exactness, order and symmetry
    • Obsessions with the body or physical symptoms
    • Sexual and religious thoughts
    • Urge to hoard useless or worn out possessions
    • Thoughts of aggression or violence
  • Compulsions
    • Checking
    • Cleaning or washing
    • Mental compulsions
    • Arranging, symmetry and exactness
    • Hoarding or collecting
    • Counting
    • Repeating words silently
    • Ruminate thoughts
    • Neutralizing thoughts
    • Asking for reassurance
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