obsessive-compulsive%20disorder
OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the presence of either obsessions or compulsions, but more commonly by both symptoms that can cause marked impairment or distress.
Obsession is a recurrent, persistent, intrusive, unwanted thought, image or urge that cause distressing emotions (eg anxiety and disgust).
Compulsion is a repetitive behavior or mental act that the person feels driven to perform, in order to lessen the distress caused by the obsession.
Anxiety is the central feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Introduction

  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by the presence of either obsessions or compulsions, but more commonly by both symptoms

Definition

  • Obsession is a repeated, intrusive, unwanted thought, image or urge that cause distressing emotions (eg anxiety and disgust)
    • Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder attach to the occurrence and/or content of the intrusions. They tend to believe that these urges or thoughts are immoral or dangerous and that they are able to prevent harm to themselves or another person
  • Compulsion is a repetitive behavior or mental act that the person feels driven to perform, in order to lessen the distress caused by the obsession
    • It aims to reduce harm or make the patient feel comfortable
  • Anxiety is a central feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder

Epidemiology

  • There is a 1.1-1.8% prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder worldwide
  • During adulthood, there is a slight higher prevalence in women but in childhood men are the ones commonly affected

Signs and Symptoms

Common Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

  • Obsessions
    • Fear of contamination
    • Fear of harm coming to self
    • Fear of causing harm to someone else
    • Fear of being unacceptable
    • Fear of making a mistake
    • Need for exactness, order and symmetry
    • Obsessions with the body or physical symptoms
    • Sexual and religious thoughts
    • Urge to hoard useless or worn out possessions
    • Thoughts of aggression or violence
  • Compulsions
    • Checking
    • Cleaning or washing
    • Mental compulsions
    • Arranging, symmetry and exactness
    • Hoarding or collecting
    • Counting
    • Repeating words silently
    • Ruminate thoughts
    • Neutralizing thoughts
    • Asking for reassurance
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Psychiatry - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
5 days ago
The consumption of red and processed meats does not seem to affect the likelihood of symptom relapse among Crohn’s disease (CD) patients in relapse, reports a recent study.
Pearl Toh, 3 days ago
In addition to the known evils of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the son’s semen quality, prenatal exposure to paternal smoking can also be harmful, according to data from a large Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) presented at the ESHRE 2019 Meeting.
5 days ago
Treatment with metformin may improve whole-body and peripheral insulin resistance (IR) in youth who are overweight/obese with type 1 diabetes (T1D), according to a study.
3 days ago
Fluticasone, swallowed from a multidose inhaler, and oral viscous budesonide slurry have comparable efficacies as initial treatment for eosinophilic oesophagitis, a recent study has found.