obsessive-compulsive%20disorder
OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the presence of either obsessions or compulsions, but more commonly by both symptoms that can cause marked impairment or distress.
Obsession is a recurrent, persistent, intrusive, unwanted thought, image or urge that cause distressing emotions (eg anxiety and disgust).
Compulsion is a repetitive behavior or mental act that the person feels driven to perform, in order to lessen the distress caused by the obsession.
Anxiety is the central feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Introduction

  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is characterized by the presence of either obsessions or compulsions, but more commonly by both symptoms

Definition

  • Obsession is a repeated, intrusive, unwanted thought, image or urge that cause distressing emotions (eg anxiety & disgust)
    • Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder attach to the occurrence &/or content of the intrusions. They tend to believe that these urges or thoughts are immoral or dangerous & that they are able to prevent harm to themselves or another person
  • Compulsion is a repetitive behavior or mental act that the person feels driven to perform, in order to lessen the distress caused by the obsession
    • It aims to reduce harm or make the patient feel comfortable
  • Anxiety is a central feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder

Epidemiology

  • There is a 1.1-1.8% prevalence of obsessive-compulsive disorder worldwide
  • During adulthood, there is a slight higher prevalence in women but in childhood men are the ones commonly affected

Signs and Symptoms

Common Symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

  • Obsessions
    • Fear of contamination
    • Fear of harm coming to self
    • Fear of causing harm to someone else
    • Fear of being unacceptable
    • Fear of making a mistake
    • Need for exactness, order & symmetry
    • Obsessions with the body or physical symptoms
    • Sexual & religious thoughts
    • Urge to hoard useless or worn out possessions
    • Thoughts of aggression or violence
  • Compulsions
    • Checking
    • Cleaning or washing
    • Mental compulsions
    • Arranging, symmetry & exactness
    • Hoarding or collecting
    • Counting
    • Repeating words silently
    • Ruminate thoughts
    • Neutralizing thoughts
    • Asking for reassurance
Digital Edition
Asia's trusted medical magazine for healthcare professionals. Get your MIMS Psychiatry - Malaysia digital copy today!
Sign In To Download
Editor's Recommendations
Most Read Articles
Dr. Joseph Delano Fule Robles, 10 Oct 2018

An augmented reality (AR)-based communication aid is shown to be safe and effective for patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).

21 Sep 2018
Having a history of depression seems to increase the risk of coronary heart disease in midlife women younger than 65 years of age, a recent study has shown.
24 Nov 2018
Increased intake levels of coffee or tea appear to be protective against the risk of depression, whereas high consumption levels of soft drinks may have an opposite effect, according to a study.
Dr. Joseph Delano Fule Robles, 10 Oct 2018

A recent study showed that wearable sensors are effective for identifying factors associated with high stress and low mental health.