Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the presence of either obsessions or compulsions, but more commonly by both symptoms that can cause marked impairment or distress.
Obsession is a recurrent, persistent, intrusive, unwanted thought, image or urge that cause distressing emotions (eg anxiety and disgust).
Compulsion is a repetitive behavior or mental act that the person feels driven to perform, in order to lessen the distress caused by the obsession.
Anxiety is the central feature of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) with a chronic illness course are at greater risk of remaining chronic, which, in turn, is associated with poor clinical outcome, according to a study.
Malignant obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) has a poor long-term prognosis, a study suggests. Moreover, patients who undergo neurosurgical treatment with capsulotomy may require psychiatric treatment and psychotropic medication many years after the procedure.
There are different patterns of subcortical abnormalities in paediatric and adult patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), with the pallidum and hippocampus appearing to be of importance in adult OCD and the thalamus in paediatric OCD, according to results of meta- and mega-analyses.
In addition to the known evils of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the son’s semen quality, prenatal exposure to paternal smoking can also be harmful, according to data from a large Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) presented at the ESHRE 2019 Meeting.