Obesity is having an excessive amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass that may impair health.
The primary cause is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and expended.
Treatment goals include to lose 5-10% of body weight or 0.5-1 kg (1-2 lb)/week for 6 months and regain of <3 kg in 2 years and sustained reduction of waist circumference of at least 4 cm.
Strategies are aiming for realistic goals and a multidisciplinary approach that is a combination of dietary change, physical activity and behavioral modification.
Structured weight-loss programmes incorporating meal replacements and behavioural support appear to be an effective strategy for reducing weight in overweight or obese adults, including those with diabetes mellitus 2 or prediabetes, a study has shown.
Continuous consumption of nonnutritive sweeteners does not appear to exert weight management benefits, with some studies showing a potential increase in weight over time, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Obesity, although metabolically healthy, accelerates ageing by way of greater declines in physical function and worsening of bodily pain, according to the Whitehall II cohort data. The condition is also an important risk to maintaining independence in older age.
Higher baseline free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine may predict more weight loss, but not weight regain, among overweight and obese adults with normal thyroid function in a diet-induced weight-loss setting, a study has found.
Use of metformin for 6 months may yield reductions in body mass index (BMI), as well as improvements in inflammatory and cardiovascular-related obesity parameters in prepubertal but not pubertal children, according to a study.
Prebiotic intake may improve obesity outcomes in children, with a recent study showing that supplementation with oligofructose-enriched inulin selectively alters the intestinal microbiota and significantly reduces body weight, body fat, trunk fat, and serum level of interleukin 6 (IL6) in overweight or obese children.