Obesity is having an excessive amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass that may impair health.
The primary cause is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and expended.
Treatment goals include to lose 5-10% of body weight or 0.5-1 kg (1-2 lb)/week for 6 months and regain of <3 kg in 2 years and sustained reduction of waist circumference of at least 4 cm.
Strategies are aiming for realistic goals and a multidisciplinary approach that is a combination of dietary change, physical activity and behavioral modification.
A combination of aerobic and resistance exercise training during weight loss yields the greatest improvement in physical function and reduction of frailty, with relative preservation of lean mass, in older adults with obesity as compared with participation in either exercise training programme alone, according to a study.
Individuals who are obese and severely obese may expect to live 6 to 7 fewer years in good health and 7 to 9 fewer years without chronic diseases compared with those who have normal weight, a study suggests.
The risk of depression appears to be elevated among individuals who are underweight and those who are obese, and differs between the genders among those who are overweight, according to a meta-analysis. Among obese individuals specifically, the risk increases as body mass index (BMI) increases.
Supplementation with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), an acetogenic fibre, may help increase faecal Bifidobacterium spp. abundance, according to a study. However, this increase does not appear to significantly affect insulin sensitivity or related substrate and energy metabolism in overweight or obese men and women with prediabetes.
Individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) on a once-weekly dose of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue semaglutide experienced better reductions in glucose levels and body weight and fewer adverse events compared with those given a once-daily dose of insulin glargine, according to the SUSTAIN 4* trial.
Prebiotic supplementation in overweight and obese children improves subjective appetite ratings, resulting in lower energy intake in a breakfast buffet in older but not in younger children, a recent study has found.
In obese women who undergo bariatric surgery, weight loss is associated with a significant improvement in pelvic floor disorders—including urinary incontinence (UI), pelvic organ prolapse and colorectal-anal complaints—as well as in sexual performance, a recent study suggests.
Greater parity, early age at menarche, or oral contraceptive use may increase a woman’s risk of undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) for severe knee osteoarthritis (OA), according to findings from the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS).