Obesity is having an excessive amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass that may impair health.
The primary cause is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and expended.
Treatment goals include to lose 5-10% of body weight or 0.5-1 kg (1-2 lb)/week for 6 months and regain of <3 kg in 2 years and sustained reduction of waist circumference of at least 4 cm.
Strategies are aiming for realistic goals and a multidisciplinary approach that is a combination of dietary change, physical activity and behavioral modification.
Gastric bypass surgery in addition to intensive lifestyle and medical intervention led to reductions in HbA1c, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels up to 5 years post-surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes, though the effects of surgery appeared to decrease over time, according to results of the Diabetes Surgery Study.
Evidence is still lacking on whether remote patient monitoring using wearable biosensors can improve patient clinical outcomes such as blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), or weight, suggests a meta-analysis, despite the rising popularity of wearables among the general public.
Improved adherence to healthy dietary patterns appears to reduce the genetic association with body mass index (BMI) increment and weight gain, according to evidence from two prospective cohorts. In addition, individuals at high genetic risk for obesity gain most from the beneficial effect of improving diet quality.
Short-term anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive technique used to modulate brain activity, appears to confer no immediate effect on ad libitum food intake or weight change compared with sham tDCS, according to a study. However, a longer period of anodal tDCS reduces hunger and snack food intake in obese individuals.
Individuals with obesity and high abdominal fat mass appear to have a twofold increased risk of developing psoriasis, as shown in a study. Long-term weight gain of ≥10 kg is also associated with a substantially increased risk.
Almost half of the patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) within the past 6 years reverted to nondiabetic state along with weight reduction and discontinuation of antidiabetic drugs at 12 months, after undertaking dietary and lifestyle intervention in the primary care setting, according to the DiRECT* trial.
There are various methods primary care physicians (PCPs) counsel patients with obesity, according to a Singapore study. Out of the 5As tool, PCPs focus predominantly on “Ask,” “Assess” and “Advise,” while the use of “Agree” and “Arrange” is uncommon.
Structured weight-loss programmes incorporating meal replacements and behavioural support appear to be an effective strategy for reducing weight in overweight or obese adults, including those with diabetes mellitus 2 or prediabetes, a study has shown.
The risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) is significantly higher among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) than those with type 2 diabetes (T2D), results of the CARRÉ* study reveal. Such risk persisted even after adjusting for traditional CV risk factors, which suggests that systemic inflammation is an independent contributor to CV risk.
A recent retrospective study from Singapore identified several factors associated with a higher risk of mortality following hip fracture, including male sex, older age, and a higher number of comorbidities.