Obesity is having an excessive amount of body fat that may impair health.
The primary cause is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and expended.
Treatment goals include addressing the principal cause of weight gain and focusing management on both weight loss and patient-centered health outcomes.
A multidisciplinary approach, that is a combination of dietary change, physical activity and behavioral modification, is recommended.
Both obesity and excessive weight gain in middle age bear a heightened risk of cognitive impairment at old age, according to a study. Conversely, excessive weight loss is not associated with a risk increase, although it may serve as an early marker of a “long and insidious process of cognitive decline.”
Bariatric surgery is beneficial to nondiabetic Asian patients with obesity, delivering sustained weight loss in addition to normalizing sugar levels and insulin resistance within 1–3 years of the procedure, as reported in a Singapore study.
Genetic predisposition to elevated blood pressure (BP) may affect BP changes in response to weight-loss diets, such that individuals with higher genetic susceptibility exhibit less decrease in BP levels, a study has found. Moreover, this effect differs by protein intake.
In postmenopausal women, severe energy restriction led to greater weight, fat, and whole-body lean mass loss than that achieved with moderate energy restriction, according to results of the TEMPO* Diet trial conducted in Sydney, Australia. However, there was a tendency toward greater loss in total hip bone mineral density (BMD) with severe energy restriction.
Among women with severe obesity, undergoing bariatric (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) surgery prior to conception was associated with a reduced risk of major birth defects in their infants, according to a matched cohort study conducted in Sweden.
The LITE (Lifestyle Intervention for Teenagers) programme, a family-based behavioural lifestyle intervention, demonstrates acceptability, feasibility as well as short-term clinical effectiveness in improving some clinical outcomes and adolescents’ perception of family support, according to a Singapore study.
Undergoing in-facility physical activity (PA) programmes initiated before the 20th week of gestation helps reduce the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) among high-risk mothers, according to the results of a meta-analysis.