Obesity is having an excessive amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass that may impair health.
The primary cause is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and expended.
Treatment goals include to lose 5-10% of body weight or 0.5-1 kg (1-2 lb)/week for 6 months and regain of <3 kg in 2 years and sustained reduction of waist circumference of at least 4 cm.
Strategies are aiming for realistic goals and a multidisciplinary approach that is a combination of dietary change, physical activity and behavioral modification.
Genetic predisposition to elevated blood pressure (BP) may affect BP changes in response to weight-loss diets, such that individuals with higher genetic susceptibility exhibit less decrease in BP levels, a study has found. Moreover, this effect differs by protein intake.
In postmenopausal women, severe energy restriction led to greater weight, fat, and whole-body lean mass loss than that achieved with moderate energy restriction, according to results of the TEMPO* Diet trial conducted in Sydney, Australia. However, there was a tendency toward greater loss in total hip bone mineral density (BMD) with severe energy restriction.
Among women with severe obesity, undergoing bariatric (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) surgery prior to conception was associated with a reduced risk of major birth defects in their infants, according to a matched cohort study conducted in Sweden.
The LITE (Lifestyle Intervention for Teenagers) programme, a family-based behavioural lifestyle intervention, demonstrates acceptability, feasibility as well as short-term clinical effectiveness in improving some clinical outcomes and adolescents’ perception of family support, according to a Singapore study.
There is an unmistakable presence of comorbidities in primary school children who are obese, according to a study. Lifestyle interventions have a greater effect on such comorbidities in primary than in secondary school children, which underscores the necessity of early interventions.
Individuals with obesity are at an elevated risk of developing infections, particularly that of the skin in both men and women, and those of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts and sepsis in women only, according to a study.
Obesity at any age in adulthood doubles the risk of having poor physical functioning in midlife, with body mass index gains over much of the life course and prolonged exposure to obesity contributing to the risk, according to a study.
Teens with severe obesity need not wait until they are adults to undergo Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, with 5-year follow-up data from a recent study showing that the bariatric procedure leads to substantial weight loss that is similar in magnitude in adolescents and adults.
The risk of nonvertebral fractures is dependent on type of bariatric surgery, with a higher risk in patients with severe obesity who undergo Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) compared with adjustable gastric banding (AGB), according to a recent retrospective study.
Greater parity, early age at menarche, or oral contraceptive use may increase a woman’s risk of undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) for severe knee osteoarthritis (OA), according to findings from the Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS).