Obesity is having an excessive amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass that may impair health.
The primary cause is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and expended.
Treatment goals include to lose 5-10% of body weight or 0.5-1 kg (1-2 lb)/week for 6 months and regain of <3 kg in 2 years and sustained reduction of waist circumference of at least 4 cm.
Strategies are aiming for realistic goals and a multidisciplinary approach that is a combination of dietary change, physical activity and behavioral modification.
Oral supplementation with probiotics or synbiotics leads to a reduction in waist circumference of overweight or obese adults, although the effect size is small and may be clinically insignificant, according to the results of a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Long-term testosterone therapy in obese men with hypogonadism led to sustained weight loss and improvements in multiple anthropometric parameters, according to an observational study presented at ENDO 2019.
About one-third of individuals who achieved remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D) after losing weight with an intensive weight management programme sustained their remission at 2 years, according to long-term results of the DiRECT* trial.
In addition to an intensive weight loss programme, the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) could improve absolute weight loss in individuals with obesity and obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), according to a study presented at ENDO 2019.
Patients with obesity have an elevated risk of intra- and postoperative complications following surgical treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), according to a presentation at the recent Advances in Inflammatory Bowel Disease meeting (AIBD 2018).
The world has seen a steady rise in the prevalence of excess body weight and the associated cancer burden over the past four decades, according to a study. The number of obese adults has grown sixfold from 100 million in 1975 to 671 million in 2016, with obesity accounting for about 3.9 percent of all cancers in 2012 globally.
Supplementation with resistant starch for 12 weeks decreases the inflammatory marker tumour necrosis factor [TNF]-α and heart rate but does not significantly improve glycaemic control and other cardiovascular disease risk factors in prediabetic adults, suggests a study.
Use of the feminizing hormone therapy medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) results in minimal side effects, unchanged oestradiol levels and a decline in testosterone in a cohort of transwomen, a study has found.