Obesity is having an excessive amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass that may impair health.
The primary cause is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and expended.
Treatment goals include to lose 5-10% of body weight or 0.5-1 kg (1-2 lb)/week for 6 months and regain of <3 kg in 2 years and sustained reduction of waist circumference of at least 4 cm.
Strategies are aiming for realistic goals and a multidisciplinary approach that is a combination of dietary change, physical activity and behavioral modification.
Individuals with obesity but without diabetes experienced significant weight reduction with daily doses of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist semaglutide, according to a recent study presented at ENDO 2018.
Individuals with severe obesity who undergo Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) may have a higher risk of nonvertebral fractures than those who undergo adjustable gastric banding (AGB), according to a study presented at the recent ENDO 2018 sessions.
Eating slower was associated with reduced body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference, as well as a lower risk of obesity than eating faster in people with type 2 diabetes, suggests a longitudinal observational study.
Patients who lose ≥8 percent of their excess weight via a 1-month-long surgeon-recommended low-calorie diet prior to undergoing primary vertical sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) have a greater rate of excess weight loss up to 1 year following the procedure, a recent study found.
Women who undergo a hysterectomy with bilateral ovarian conservation appear to have an elevated risk of cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic disease, particularly those who undergo the procedure at age 35 or younger, a recent study found.
Gastric bypass surgery in addition to intensive lifestyle and medical intervention led to reductions in HbA1c, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels up to 5 years post-surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes, though the effects of surgery appeared to decrease over time, according to results of the Diabetes Surgery Study.
Evidence is still lacking on whether remote patient monitoring using wearable biosensors can improve patient clinical outcomes such as blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), or weight, suggests a meta-analysis, despite the rising popularity of wearables among the general public.
Improved adherence to healthy dietary patterns appears to reduce the genetic association with body mass index (BMI) increment and weight gain, according to evidence from two prospective cohorts. In addition, individuals at high genetic risk for obesity gain most from the beneficial effect of improving diet quality.
Short-term anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive technique used to modulate brain activity, appears to confer no immediate effect on ad libitum food intake or weight change compared with sham tDCS, according to a study. However, a longer period of anodal tDCS reduces hunger and snack food intake in obese individuals.
Impaired endothelial-dependent microvascular reactivity appears to be predictive of albuminuria progression in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) who have normal urine albumin levels at baseline, but not in those with microalbuminuria, a prospective longitudinal cohort study suggests.
Good glycaemic control and minimizing CV risk factors are the cornerstones of T2D management. Empagliflozin, a SGLT2 inhibitor, has a unique mechanism of action that not only lowers plasma glucose but also other CV risk factors. The EMPA-REG OUTCOME® trial explored the CV benefits of this drug, and a panel of eminent speakers gathered recently to present the implications of this study and empagliflozin on clinical practice.