Obesity is having an excessive amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass that may impair health.
The primary cause is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and expended.
Treatment goals include to lose 5-10% of body weight or 0.5-1 kg (1-2 lb)/week for 6 months and regain of <3 kg in 2 years and sustained reduction of waist circumference of at least 4 cm.
Strategies are aiming for realistic goals and a multidisciplinary approach that is a combination of dietary change, physical activity and behavioral modification.
The LITE (Lifestyle Intervention for Teenagers) programme, a family-based behavioural lifestyle intervention, demonstrates acceptability, feasibility as well as short-term clinical effectiveness in improving some clinical outcomes and adolescents’ perception of family support, according to a Singapore study.
There is an unmistakable presence of comorbidities in primary school children who are obese, according to a study. Lifestyle interventions have a greater effect on such comorbidities in primary than in secondary school children, which underscores the necessity of early interventions.
Individuals with obesity are at an elevated risk of developing infections, particularly that of the skin in both men and women, and those of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts and sepsis in women only, according to a study.
Obesity at any age in adulthood doubles the risk of having poor physical functioning in midlife, with body mass index gains over much of the life course and prolonged exposure to obesity contributing to the risk, according to a study.
Teens with severe obesity need not wait until they are adults to undergo Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, with 5-year follow-up data from a recent study showing that the bariatric procedure leads to substantial weight loss that is similar in magnitude in adolescents and adults.
The risk of nonvertebral fractures is dependent on type of bariatric surgery, with a higher risk in patients with severe obesity who undergo Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) compared with adjustable gastric banding (AGB), according to a recent retrospective study.
Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is useful for treating severe obesity in adolescents with cognitive impairment or developmental disability, according to a study, suggesting that bariatric surgery should be considered for young people, regardless of intellectual ability.
One anastomosis gastric bypass is as effective as the standard Roux-en-Y procedure in terms of weight loss and metabolic improvements 24 months after the surgery, according to the results of the open-label YOMEGA trial.
Oral supplementation with probiotics or synbiotics leads to a reduction in waist circumference of overweight or obese adults, although the effect size is small and may be clinically insignificant, according to the results of a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Almost half of Asian patients with dyslipidaemia and hypertension, as well as half of those on pharmacotherapy, have achieved their blood pressure (BP) treatment goals, a Singapore study has shown. Moreover, BP goal attainment is significantly associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) control.