Obesity is having an excessive amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass that may impair health.
The primary cause is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and expended.
Treatment goals include to lose 5-10% of body weight or 0.5-1 kg (1-2 lb)/week for 6 months and regain of <3 kg in 2 years and sustained reduction of waist circumference of at least 4 cm.
Strategies are aiming for realistic goals and a multidisciplinary approach that is a combination of dietary change, physical activity and behavioral modification.
Short-term anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a noninvasive technique used to modulate brain activity, appears to confer no immediate effect on ad libitum food intake or weight change compared with sham tDCS, according to a study. However, a longer period of anodal tDCS reduces hunger and snack food intake in obese individuals.
Individuals with obesity and high abdominal fat mass appear to have a twofold increased risk of developing psoriasis, as shown in a study. Long-term weight gain of ≥10 kg is also associated with a substantially increased risk.
Almost half of the patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) within the past 6 years reverted to nondiabetic state along with weight reduction and discontinuation of antidiabetic drugs at 12 months, after undertaking dietary and lifestyle intervention in the primary care setting, according to the DiRECT* trial.
There are various methods primary care physicians (PCPs) counsel patients with obesity, according to a Singapore study. Out of the 5As tool, PCPs focus predominantly on “Ask,” “Assess” and “Advise,” while the use of “Agree” and “Arrange” is uncommon.
Structured weight-loss programmes incorporating meal replacements and behavioural support appear to be an effective strategy for reducing weight in overweight or obese adults, including those with diabetes mellitus 2 or prediabetes, a study has shown.
Continuous consumption of nonnutritive sweeteners does not appear to exert weight management benefits, with some studies showing a potential increase in weight over time, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Obesity, although metabolically healthy, accelerates ageing by way of greater declines in physical function and worsening of bodily pain, according to the Whitehall II cohort data. The condition is also an important risk to maintaining independence in older age.
Higher baseline free triiodothyronine and free thyroxine may predict more weight loss, but not weight regain, among overweight and obese adults with normal thyroid function in a diet-induced weight-loss setting, a study has found.
New drug applications approved by US FDA as of 15 – 31 May 2015 which includes New Molecular Entities (NMEs) and new biologics. It does not include Tentative Approvals. Supplemental approvals may have occurred since the original approval date.