Obesity is having an excessive amount of body fat that may impair health.
The primary cause is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and expended.
Treatment goals include addressing the principal cause of weight gain and focusing management on both weight loss and patient-centered health outcomes.
A multidisciplinary approach, that is a combination of dietary change, physical activity and behavioral modification, is recommended.
Individuals with obesity are likely to maintain a healthy metabolic status on a vegetarian or vegan diet, according to a study. But simply adhering to this dietary pattern does not assure better outcome, because some plant-based foods are less nutritious.
Among individuals with abdominal obesity, drinking beverages with artificial sweeteners (ASBs) or no sugar (USBs) instead of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) helps lose body weight, a study has found. However, USBs have a more favourable effect on sweet taste preference compared with ASBs.
Patients who have undergone weight-loss surgery may sometimes have to return for revision, which helps improve outcomes associated with obesity, such as diabetes and hypertension, according to a meta-analysis.
Among middle-aged and older adults, sleeping poorly is related to general and abdominal obesity, short sleep duration to both sarcopaenic and general obesity, and depression to sarcopaenia, as suggested in a study.
The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP1-RA) liraglutide helps prevent and/or reverse memory function decline in obese patients with prediabetes or early type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), whereas a lifestyle intervention produces improvements in attentive functions, a study has shown.
The combination therapy comprising carfilzomib, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone (KCd) is effective, with a tolerable safety profile, in an Asian cohort with high-risk multiple myeloma (MM) — thus providing a more economical alternative as a potential upfront regimen in resource-limited settings, according to leading experts during a myeloma education webinar.
The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor escitalopram holds promise in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease, reducing amyloid-β-42 levels in cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue in older adults with normal cognitive function, according to recent evidence.
Diabetes is a key risk factor for heart failure (HF), which is the leading cause of hospitalization in patients with or without diabetes. SGLT-2* inhibitors (SGLT-2is) have been shown to reduce the risk of hospitalization for HF (HHF) regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes.