Obesity is having an excessive amount of body fat that may impair health.
The primary cause is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and expended.
Treatment goals include addressing the principal cause of weight gain and focusing management on both weight loss and patient-centered health outcomes.
A multidisciplinary approach, that is a combination of dietary change, physical activity and behavioral modification, is recommended.
Individuals with obesity are likely to maintain a healthy metabolic status on a vegetarian or vegan diet, according to a study. But simply adhering to this dietary pattern does not assure better outcome, because some plant-based foods are less nutritious.
Among individuals with abdominal obesity, drinking beverages with artificial sweeteners (ASBs) or no sugar (USBs) instead of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) helps lose body weight, a study has found. However, USBs have a more favourable effect on sweet taste preference compared with ASBs.
Patients who have undergone weight-loss surgery may sometimes have to return for revision, which helps improve outcomes associated with obesity, such as diabetes and hypertension, according to a meta-analysis.
Among middle-aged and older adults, sleeping poorly is related to general and abdominal obesity, short sleep duration to both sarcopaenic and general obesity, and depression to sarcopaenia, as suggested in a study.
The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP1-RA) liraglutide helps prevent and/or reverse memory function decline in obese patients with prediabetes or early type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), whereas a lifestyle intervention produces improvements in attentive functions, a study has shown.
Individuals who eat large amounts of vegetables and fruits, wheat, nuts, and dairy products are better protected against insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and excessive abdominal fat as compared with those who consume lots of fast foods, alcoholic beverages, and desserts—a dietary pattern described to promote metabolic abnormalities and disorders, as reported in a study.