Obesity is having an excessive amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass that may impair health.
The primary cause is an energy imbalance between calories consumed and expended.
Treatment goals include to lose 5-10% of body weight or 0.5-1 kg (1-2 lb)/week for 6 months and regain of <3 kg in 2 years and sustained reduction of waist circumference of at least 4 cm.
Strategies are aiming for realistic goals and a multidisciplinary approach that is a combination of dietary change, physical activity and behavioral modification.
While bariatric surgery is increasingly recommended in obese teens to achieve significant, sustained weight loss and resolve comorbid diseases, a study has shown a major downside to the procedure: nutritional deficiencies, specifically in iron and vitamin B12.
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who are overweight or obese but have high cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF)* may have a reduced risk of heart failure (HF), according to a study presented at EPI Lifestyle 2020.
Real-world data from the PCORnet* Bariatric Study suggest that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) may be preferable to sleeve gastrectomy (SG) in inducing and maintaining type 2 diabetes (T2DM) remission.
Use of combination therapy with sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or obese patients yields favourable effects on glycaemic control, body weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) without increasing the incidence of adverse events, according to the results of a meta-analysis.
In the primary care setting, adding liraglutide to intensive behavioural therapy (IBT) conferred greater weight loss than IBT alone among individuals with obesity, results from the phase IIIB SCALE* IBT study showed.
Both obesity and excessive weight gain in middle age bear a heightened risk of cognitive impairment at old age, according to a study. Conversely, excessive weight loss is not associated with a risk increase, although it may serve as an early marker of a “long and insidious process of cognitive decline.”