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Nutrition is the intake of food necessary for optimal health.

Choices regarding maternal nutrition and lifestyle affect maternal and child health.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that women develop healthy dietary behaviors prior, during and after their pregnancy for optimal maternal and infant health outcomes.

The goal of prenatal nutrition is to provide for the optimal development of the fetus and to support maternal health.

Nutrition in Pregnancy References

  1. WHO Expert Consultation. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet. 2004 Jan 10;363(9403):157-163. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)15268-3. PMID: 14726171
  2. Ball L, Wilkinson S. Nutrition care by general practitioners: enhancing women’s health during and after pregnancy. Aust Fam Physician. 2016 Aug;45(8):542-547. PMID: 27610441
  3. Barba CV, Cabrera MI. Recommended dietary allowances harmonization in Southeast Asia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(Suppl 2):405-408. Accessed 15 Feb 2017. PMID: 18460439
  4. Calcium equivalents. Cornell University website. 07 Jun 2011. Accessed 17 Mar 2017.
  5. Department of Health Hong Kong. Healthy eating during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Family Health Service, Department of Health, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Dec 2019. Accessed 03 Feb 2017.
  6. Florentino RF, Tee ES, Hardinsyah R, et al. Food-based dietary guidelines of Southeast Asian countries: part 2 - analysis of pictorial food guides. Mal J Nutr. 2016;22(Suppl):S49-S65.
  7. Garner CD. Nutrition in pregnancy. UpToDate. 20 Dec 2016.
  8. Hanson MA, Bardsley A, De-Regil LM, et al. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) recommendations on adolescent, preconception, and maternal nutrition: “Think Nutrition First”. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2015 Oct;131(Suppl 4):S213-253. doi: 10.1016/S0020-7292(15)30023-0. PMID: 26433230
  9. Healthline Editorial Team. Nutritional deficiencies (malnutrition). Healthline website. 06 Nov 2015.
  10. Mayo Clinic. Nutrition and healthy eating. Mayo Clinic website. 05 Aug 2015.
  11. Nutrition Working Group, O’Connor DL, Blake J, Bell R, et al. Canadian consensus on female nutrition: adolescence, reproduction, menopause, and beyond. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2016 Jun;38(6):508-554.e18. doi: 10.1016/j.jogc.2016.01.001. PMID: 27368135
  12. Perales M, Artal R, Lucia A. Exercise during pregnancy. JAMA. 2017;317(11):1113-1114. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.0593. Accessed 22 Mar 2017. PMID: 28324098
  13. Procter SB, Campbell CG. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Jul;114(7):1099-103. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2014.05.005. PMID: 24956993
  14. Ramadan and pregnancy. British Nutrition Foundation. Apr 2015.
  15. Ryan JM, Rice GE, Mitchell MD. The role of gangliosides in brain development and the potential benefits of perinatal supplementation. Nutr Res. 2013 Nov;33(11):877-887. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2013.07.021. PMID: 24176227
  16. Stewart A. Deficiency symptoms and signs. website. 2017.
  17. World Health Organization. WHO recommendations on antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience. WHO. Nov 2016. Accessed 15 Feb 2017.
  18. Auerbach M, Adamson JW. How we diagnose and treat iron deficiency anemia. Am J Hematol. 2016 Jan;91(1):31-38. doi: 10.1002/ajh.24201. Accessed 25 Apr 2017. PMID: 26408108
  19. Wibowo N, Irwinda R. The effect of multi-micronutrient and protein supplementation on iron and micronutrients status in pregnant women. Med J Indones. 2015;24:168-175.
  20. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO Recommendations on antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience: summary. WHO. 2018.
  21. Koletzko B, Godfrey KM, Poston L, et al. Nutrition during pregnancy, lactation and early childhood and its implications for maternal and long-term child health: The Early Nutrition Project recommendations. Ann Nutr Metab. 2019;74(2):93-106. doi: 10.1159/000496471. PMID: 30673669
  22. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies. Dietary reference intakes (DRIs): Recommended dietary allowances and adequate intakes, vitamins. National Institutes of Health. Accessed 23 Mar 2017.
  23. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO antenatal care recommendations for a positive pregnancy experience. Nutritional interventions update: multiple micronutrient supplements during pregnancy. WHO. 2020.
  24. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO antenatal care recommendations for a positive pregnancy experience. Nutritional interventions update: vitamin D supplements during pregnancy. WHO. 2020.
  25. U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025. 9th edition. Dec 2020. Accessed 28 Apr 2021.
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