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Nutrition is the intake of food necessary for optimal health.

Choices regarding maternal nutrition and lifestyle affect maternal and child health.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that women develop healthy dietary behaviors prior, during and after their pregnancy for optimal maternal and infant health outcomes.

The goal of prenatal nutrition is to provide for the optimal development of the fetus and to support maternal health.

Nutrition in Pregnancy References

  1. WHO Expert Consultation. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet. 2004 Jan 10;363(9403):157-163. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)15268-3. PMID: 14726171
  2. Ball L, Wilkinson S. Nutrition care by general practitioners: enhancing women’s health during and after pregnancy. Aust Fam Physician. 2016 Aug;45(8):542-547. Accessed 03 Feb 2017. PMID: 27610441
  3. Barba CV, Cabrera MI. Recommended dietary allowances harmonization in Southeast Asia. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17(Suppl 2):405-408. Accessed 15 Feb 2017. PMID: 18460439
  4. Calcium equivalents. Cornell University website. 07 Jun 2011. Accessed 17 Mar 2017.
  5. Department of Health Hong Kong. Healthy eating during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Family Health Service, Department of Health, The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Feb 2022. Accessed 11 Apr 2023.
  6. Florentino RF, Tee ES, Hardinsyah R, et al. Food-based dietary guidelines of Southeast Asian countries: part 2 - analysis of pictorial food guides. Mal J Nutr. 2016;22(Suppl):S49-S65. Accessed 16 Feb 2017
  7. Garner CD. Nutrition in pregnancy. UpToDate. 20 Dec 2016. Accessed 03 Feb 2017.
  8. Hanson MA, Bardsley A, De-Regil LM, et al. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) recommendations on adolescent, preconception, and maternal nutrition: “Think Nutrition First”. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2015 Oct;131(Suppl 4):S213-253. doi: 10.1016/S0020-7292(15)30023-0. Accessed 03 Feb 2017. PMID: 26433230
  9. Healthline Editorial Team. Nutritional deficiencies (malnutrition). Healthline. 06 Nov 2015. Accessed 22 Mar 2017.
  10. Mayo Clinic. Nutrition and healthy eating. Mayo Clinic website. 05 Aug 2015. Accessed 14 Feb 2017.
  11. Nutrition Working Group, O’Connor DL, Blake J, Bell R, et al. Canadian consensus on female nutrition: adolescence, reproduction, menopause, and beyond. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2016 Jun;38(6):508-554.e18. doi: 10.1016/j.jogc.2016.01.001. Accessed 20 Mar 2017. PMID: 27368135
  12. Perales M, Artal R, Lucia A. Exercise during pregnancy. JAMA. 2017;317(11):1113-1114. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.0593. Accessed 22 Mar 2017. PMID: 28324098
  13. Procter SB, Campbell CG. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 Jul;114(7):1099-103. doi: 10.1016/j.jand.2014.05.005. Accessed 03 Feb 2017. PMID: 24956993
  14. Ramadan and pregnancy. British Nutrition Foundation. Apr 2015. Accessed 30 Mar 2017.
  15. Ryan JM, Rice GE, Mitchell MD. The role of gangliosides in brain development and the potential benefits of perinatal supplementation. Nutr Res. 2013 Nov;33(11):877-887. doi: 10.1016/j.nutres.2013.07.021. Accessed 22 Mar 2017. PMID: 24176227
  16. Stewart A. Deficiency symptoms and signs. 2017. Accessed 24 Mar 2017.
  17. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO recommendations on antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience. WHO. Nov 2016. Accessed 15 Feb 2017.
  18. Auerbach M, Adamson JW. How we diagnose and treat iron deficiency anemia. Am J Hematol. 2016 Jan;91(1):31-38. doi: 10.1002/ajh.24201. Accessed 25 Apr 2017. PMID: 26408108
  19. Wibowo N, Irwinda R. The effect of multi-micronutrient and protein supplementation on iron and micronutrients status in pregnant women. Med J Indones. 2015;24:168-175. Accessed 09 May 2017
  20. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO Recommendations on antenatal care for a positive pregnancy experience: summary. WHO. 2018. Accessed 13 Sep 2018.
  21. Pavord S, Daru J, Prasannan N, et al. UK guidelines on the management of iron deficiency in pregnancy. Br J Haematol. 2020 Mar;188(6):819-830. doi: 10.1111/bjh.16221. Accessed 06 May 2020. PMID: 31578718.
  22. Koletzko B, Godfrey KM, Poston L, et al. Nutrition during pregnancy, lactation and early childhood and its implications for maternal and long-term child health: The Early Nutrition Project recommendations. Ann Nutr Metab. 2019;74(2):93-106. doi: 10.1159/000496471. PMID: 30673669
  23. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies. Dietary reference intakes (DRIs): Recommended dietary allowances and adequate intakes, vitamins. National Institutes of Health. Accessed 23 Mar 2017.
  24. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO antenatal care recommendations for a positive pregnancy experience. Nutritional interventions update: multiple micronutrient supplements during pregnancy. WHO. 2020.
  25. World Health Organization (WHO). WHO antenatal care recommendations for a positive pregnancy experience. Nutritional interventions update: vitamin D supplements during pregnancy. WHO. 2020.
  26. U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary guidelines for Americans, 2020-2025. 9th ed. Dec 2020. Accessed 28 Apr 2021.
  27. Benson CS, Shah A, Frise MC, et al. Iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy: a contemporary review. Obstet Med. 2021 Jun;14(2):67-76. doi: 10.1177/1753495X20932426. PMID: 34394714
  28. Philippine Obstetrical and Gynecological Society (POGS) (Foundation), Inc. Clinical Practice Guidelines on Iron Deficiency Anemia. 2nd ed. Quezon City, Philippines: POGS; 2015.
  29. Stoffel NU, Zeder C, Brittenham GM, et al. Iron absorption from supplements is greater with alternate day than with consecutive day dosing in iron-deficient anemic women. Haematologica. 2020 May;105(5):1232-1239. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2019.220830. PMID: 31413088
  30. Task Force on the Clinical Practice Guidelines on Maternal Nutrition and Supplementation. Clinical Practice Guidelines on Maternal Nutrition and Supplementation. 2nd ed. Quezon City, Philippines: POGS; 2018.
  31. FIGO Working Group on Good Clinical Practice in Maternal-Fetal Medicine. Good clinical practice advice: iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2019 Mar;144(3):322-324. doi: 10.1002/ijgo.12740. PMID: 30710364
  32. Killeen SL, Donnellan N, O'Reilly SL, et al. Using FIGO Nutrition Checklist counselling in pregnancy: a review to support healthcare professionals. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2023 Jan;160 Suppl 1:10-21. doi: 10.1002/ijgo.14539. Accessed 11 Apr 2023. PMID: 36635083
  33. Wilson RD, O'Connor DL. Guideline no. 427: folic acid and multivitamin supplementation for prevention of folic acid-sensitive congenital anomalies. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2022 Jun;44(6):707-719.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.jogc.2022.04.004. PMID: 35691683
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