Nontuberculous mycobacteria are ubiquitous and are usually found in soil, natural and treated water sources. They are relatively uncommon cause of pulmonary disease and likely to cause disseminated disease.
May cause both asymptomatic infection and symptomatic disease in humans.
There is no evidence of animal-to-human or human-to-human transmission in immunocompetent hosts.
Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease is a generally slowly progressive infection.
Signs and symptoms are generally nonspecific.
A daily triple-drug regimen containing clarithromycin, rifampin and ethambutol for the treatment of nodular/bronchiectatic mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease produces a relatively high response rate similar to that seen in previous reports, as shown in a retrospective study from Japan.
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Treatment with the DPP 1* inhibitor brensocatib prolonged time to exacerbation and reduced exacerbation rates in patients with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, according to the phase II WILLOW** study presented at ERS 2020.
A fixed-dose triple therapy of ICS, LAMA, and LABA* is superior to dual therapies of either LAMA-LABA or ICS-LABA for controlling exacerbations in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD**, according to the large ETHOS*** trial.