Neuroendocrine tumors are rare, small, slow-growing epithelial neoplasms with predominant neuroendocrine differentiation found in most organs of the body.
They arise from cells throughout the diffuse endocrine system.
Carcinoid tumors and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors are the most common.
Carcinoid tumors arise from the lungs & bronchi, stomach, small intestine, appendix, rectum or thymus.
Majority of the neuroendocrine tumors are sporadic but some tumors are caused by inherited genetic syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia, Von-Hippel Lindau disease, tuberous sclerosis complex and neurofibromatosis.
They have the ability to store and secrete various peptides and neuroamines.
In patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) receiving angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, high dosing confers benefits for the risk of death or hospitalization that are similar to that obtained with lower dosing, according to a systematic review and meta-analysis.